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Table 2 Basic characteristics of included studies

From: Predictors of doping intentions, susceptibility, and behaviour of elite athletes: a meta-analytic review

Authors Year Country Target population Outcome variable Statistical analysis R2* Psychological concepts SD
N Age ± SD
Barkoukis et al. 2013a Greece 673 (750) 25 ± 5.89 (I) Intentions Lifetime never dopers Hierarchical Regression 41.2 % SDT, AGT, sportspersonship, TPB, PM (part) No
    74 (750)   (II) Intentions Lifetime ever dopers Hierarchical Regression 78.2 %   
Barkoukis et al. 2014 Greece 309 16.64 ± 1.15 Susceptibility Hierarchical Linear Regression 42.2 % AGT, TPB (part), DT No
Barkoukis et al. 2015 Greece 60 Intentions Hierarchical Regression 67 % TPB  
Donahue et al. 2006 Canada 1.201 16.34 ± 2.43 Behaviour SEM SDT, sportspersonship, use Yes
Dunn and Thomas 2012 Australia 1.684 22 ± 4.0 Behaviour Binary Logistic Regression Model 30 %b DT, PM (part) No
Gucciardi et al. 2011 Australia 670 23.75 ± 8.49 Susceptibility SEM 11 % TPB (part), DT, morality, personality No
Hodge et al. 2013 New Zealand 224 20.3 ± 3.1 Susceptibility SEM 22 % SDTc, MDE, TPB (parts) No
Jalleh et al. 2014 Australia 1237 23 ± 7.8 Behaviour SEM 13 % TPB (part), DT, morality, personality No
Lazuras et al. 2010 Greece 1075 25 ± 5.89 Intentions Hierarchical Regression analysis 69.2 % TPB, PM (part), DT Yes
Lazuras et al. 2015 Greece 816 16.08 ± 1.50 Intentions Hierarchical Regression analysis 57.2 % TBP, SDT, AGT, sportperonship, norms, self-efficacy (PBC + situational temptation) Yes
Mazanov et al. 2008 UK 757 18–23 Behaviour Logistic regression TPB (part), experience No
Petroczi 2007 USA 199 20.2 ± 2.15 Behaviour SEM SOT (GOT), beliefs, TPB (part), experience Yes
Uvasczek et al. 2011 Hungary 82 21.43 ± 2.82 Behaviour Multivariate regression model Experience, PM (part), TPB (part) No
Whitaker et al. 2014 UK 729 28.8 ± 10.1 Susceptibility Multivariate regression model 54.4 % PM, TPB (part), experience, expectancies Yes
  1. Sample with mixed target population → only results of elite athletes entered this table
  2. AGT achievement goal theory, CSA covariance structure analysis, DN descriptive norm, DT deterrence theory, GOT goal orientation theory, MDE moral disengagement, N/A not applicable, PBC perceived behavioural control, PM prototype modelling, SD socially desirable behaviour, SDT self-determination theory, SEM structural equation model, SO sport orientation, TBP theory of planned behaviour
  3. p < 0.05
  4. aStudy population was combined again for meta-analytic calculations
  5. bNagelkerkes R2
  6. cSDT extended by environment