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Table 1 Operationalization analyses

From: Predictors of doping intentions, susceptibility, and behaviour of elite athletes: a meta-analytic review

Construct Questions Cronbach’s α Author
Achievement goal theory Approach and Avoidance Achievement Goal Questionnaire (Conroy et al. 2003)a 0.73–0.80 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Approach and Avoidance Achievement Goal Questionnaire (Conroy et al. 2003) 0.73–0.80 Barkoukis et al. (2014)
  Approach and Avoidance Achievement Goal Questionnaire (Conroy et al. 2003)a 0.73–0.80 Lazuras et al. (2015)
Affordability anticipated regret Single-item: semantic differentiala: expensive-cheap 0.93 Jalleh et al. (2014)
  Four itemsa: “If I use PES to enhance my performance during this season, I will: regret it/be disappointed/feel bad/feel shame Barkoukis et al. (2015)
Attitudes/outcome expectancies (a) Indication of the importance of that sport having an effective testing programa (b) belief a doping problem exists in their sporta   Mazanov et al. (2008)
  Five itemsa: help compensate time loss after injury, help athletes in sport situations, risk is exaggerated, unavoidable in competitive sport, no difference in doping and technical support (e.g., hypoxia)   Gucciardi et al. (2011)
  Four semantic differentialsa: “The use of performance enhancing substances (PES) is…”: good/useful/beneficial/ethical 0.77 Lazuras et al. (2010)
  Four semantic differentialsa: “The use of performance enhancing substances (PES) is…”: good/useful/beneficial/ethical 0.74 Lazuras et al. (2015)
  Four semantic differentialsa: “The use of PES is…”: good/useful/beneficial/ethical 0.77 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Four semantic differentialsa: “The use of PES is…”: good/useful/beneficial/ethical Barkoukis et al. (2014)
  Four semantic differentialsa: “The use of PES is…”: good/useful/right/beneficial Barkoukis et al. (2015)
  PEAS (Petróczi and Aidman 2009) 0.83 Petroczi (2007)
  PEAS (Petróczi and Aidman 2009)   Uvacsek et al. (2011)
  PEAS (Petróczi and Aidman 2009)   Whitaker et al. (2014)
  PEAS (Petróczi and Aidman 2009) Hodge et al. (2013)
  Two itemsa: Need to use PES to perform at high level, consideration of an offer of PES   Jalleh et al. (2014)
  14 itemsa: agreement to statements to potential negative and positive outcomes   Whitaker et al. (2014)
Availability Single-item: semantic differentiala: impossible-easy to buy 0.90 Jalleh et al. (2014)
Beliefs about causes of success in sport BACCS-Questionnaire (Duda and Nicholls 1992)a 4 factors: motivation-effort reflecting attribution of success during task involvement, normative attributing success to ability, deception: attributing success to illegitimate behaviour, external factors Barkoukis (2013)
Benefit appraisal Two itemsa,b: Impact of PES on performance, rewards for performing well 0.87 Jalleh et al. (2014)
  Single-item: How necessary is it to compete at best level   Gucciardi et al. (2011)
Descriptive norm Projected use in others   Uvacsek et al. (2011)
  Single-item: perceived prevalence in others   Lazuras et al. (2010)
  Three distinct itemsa: perceived prevalence of (a) athletes competing at the same level, (b) in their sport, and (c) peer athletes   Lazuras et al. (2015)
  Single-open-ended questiona: out of 100 %, how many elite athletes in Greece… Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Three open-ended questions about beliefs of other athletes’ doping: out of 100 %, how many elite athletes… Barkoukis et al. (2014)
  Two open-ended questions: e.g. out of 100 %, how many athletes at the same to you level do you think engage in doping to enhance their performance? Barkoukis et al. (2015)
  Two itemsa: Of the athletes you know, how many use PES…, the four of the athletes you know best, how many use PES…   Whitaker et al. (2014)
  Single-item: Expression of presumed opinion regarding doping use 0.94 Petroczi (2007)
Intentions Two itemsb: Situation to have been tested in- and out of competition   Mazanov et al. (2008)
  Three itemsa: I intend to use PES to enhance my performance during this season 0.97 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Three itemsa: I intend to use PES to enhance my performance during this season   Barkoukis et al. (2015)
  Three items reflecting perceived likelihood to engage in PES use: Two items of self-predictions and one item of self-prediction of substances that are cheap, hard to detect and with great effects 0.81 Lazuras et al. (2015)
Knowledge 5 itemsb: substances and methods 5 itemsb: testing procedures 5 itemsb: rights and responsibilities 4 itemsb: sanctions   Mazanov et al. (2008)
Legitimacy Five itemsa: Security of testing procedure, equal treatment; fair hearing on positive appeal; fair hearing before sanctions, fair hearing in CAS   Jalleh et al. (2014)
  Three itemsa: Security of sampling; seriousness of preventive approaches; effectiveness of NADA   Gucciardi et al. (2011)
  Short form of MDSSa (Boardley and Kavussanu 2008)   Hodge et al. (2013)
  Three items: I would cheat if it helps me win; if others are cheating, I think I can too; I would cheat if I can get away with it   Gucciardi et al. (2011)
  Two itemsa: Moral judgment; moral emotions 0.88 Jalleh et al. (2014)
  Three itemsa: e.g. Doping use is against my moral principles   Barkoukis et al. (2015)
Motivational climate 2 constructs: (a) autonomy supportive coach/teammate: adapted from health care climate questionnaire (Williams et al. 1999) (b) controlling coach/teammate: Coach controlling behaviour scale (Bartholomew et al. 2010)   Hodge et al. (2013)
Past use/current use 7 items (never, briefly, moderately, still think about it, briefly used, occasionally used, regularly use)   Gucciardi et al. (2011)
  Do you use…   Mazanov et al. (2008)
  Singe-itema: Have you ever used PES…   Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Single-itema: Have you ever used PES…   Lazuras et al. (2010)
  15 items (banned by IOC)a: Have you used… 0.92 Donahue et al. (2006)
  Two itemsa: I feel in complete control over whether I will use PES… 0.76 Lazuras et al. (2010)
  Single itema: how frequently do you use PES to improve your performance? Lazuras et al. (2015)
  Two itemsa: I feel in complete control over whether I will use PES…(Self-esteem: PBC + Situational temptation) 0.76 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Two itemsa: I feel in complete control over whether I will use PES   Barkoukis et al. (2015)
Personality Risk takinga 0.75 Jalleh et al. (2014)
Prototype perception Four items: Favourability of perceived user/non-user, compliance perceived characteristics of users/non-user with own characteristics Whitaker et al. (2014)
Self-Determination Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier et al. 1995)a: intrinsic, extrinsic, amotivation 0.67–0.87 Lazuras et al. (2015)
  Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier et al. 1995)a: intrinsic, extrinsic, amotivation 0.67–0.87 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Two subscales from Sport Motivation Scale (Brière et al. 1995)a: extrinsic and intrinsic motivation 0.67–0.73 Donahue et al. (2006)
  Sport orientation questionnaire 0.96–0.98 Petroczi (2007)
Self-efficacy/PBC Personal competenciesa: three items (e.g. I feel in complete control over whether I will use PES to enhance my performance during this season) 0.72 Lazuras et al. (2015)
Self-esteem Four itemsa: As worth as much as other people, ability as other people, positive attitude towards oneself, satisfied with oneself Gucciardi et al. (2011)
Situational temptation/doping susceptibility Four itemsa: How much would you be tempted to use PES if…: coach suggests, most colleagues of yours are using, prepare for important competition, told to enhance performance Barkoukis et al. (2014)
  Four itemsa: How much would you be tempted if…: coach suggests, belief that colleagues use, told to enhance performance, prepare for competition 0.86 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Four itemsa: How much would be tempted if…: coach suggests, belief that colleagues use, told to enhance performance, prepare for competition 0.86 Lazuras et al. (2010)
  Five itemsa: How much would you be tempted if…: coach suggests, belief that colleagues use, told to enhance performance, prepare for competition, feeling disadvantaged 0.85 Lazuras et al. (2015)
Sportspersonship Multidimensional Sportpersonship Orientation Scale (Vallerand et al. 1997)a 0.51–0.83 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Two subscales from the Multidimensional Sportpersonship Orientation Scale (Vallerand et al. 1997)a: “respect and concern for the rules and officials”, “social conventions” 0.83–0.86 Donahue et al. (2006)
  Fours subscales from the Multidimensional Sportpersonship Orientation Scale (Vallerand et al. 1997)a: 0.71–0.90  
Subjective norms Four itemsa: coach/doctor/fellow/family would approve of using PES Whitaker et al. (2014)
  Single-item (reference group)a: How much would it be stopping you from using PES if you think about what other think of you using PES Gucciardi et al. (2011)
  Single-itema: Reference group (moral judgment of reference group) 0.74 Jalleh et al. (2014)
  Three itemsa: Most people who are important to me would want me to use PES to enhance my performance 0.84 Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  Three itemsa: Most people who are important to me would want me to use PES to enhance my performance   Barkoukis et al. (2015)
  Three itemsa: People would want me to… 0.84 Lazuras et al. (2010)
  Three itemsa: People would want me to… 0.81 Lazuras et al. (2015)
  Three itemsa: Most people important to me would want me to use PES… Barkoukis et al. (2013)
  How much consideration would you give the offer if: under medical supervision, no/low financial cost, significant difference in performance, currently not detectable Hodge et al. (2013)
Susceptibility Four itemsa: threat to health (once vs. regular use), deterrence in competition (detection), deterrence out of competition 0.87–0.91 Jalleh et al. (2014)
Threat appraisal Three itemsa: How likely to get away with it (in and out of competition), how likely is a successful appeal? Gucciardi et al. (2011)
Willingness to dope 10 scenarios (e.g., you suffer a dip in performance…) how willing would you be to use PESa Whitaker et al. (2014)
  1. PEAS Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale, N/A not available, PBC perceived behavioural control
  2. aLikert scale
  3. bNominal scale