Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Patient’s characteristics

From: Is there any role for topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of mild to moderate musculoskeletal pain in a Lebanese community pharmacy?

Characteristic Value
Age (years)  
 Mean ± SD (range)—years 40.7 ± 15.96 (12–92)
Gender—no. (%)  
 Male 72 (48)
 Female 77 (52)
Severity of pain—no. (%)  
 Mild 33 (22)
 Moderate 116 (78)
Duration of pain—no. (%)  
 Acute 100 (67)
 Sub-acute 37 (25)
 Chronic 12 (8)
Co-morbid diseases—no. (%)  
 Hypertension 45 (30)
 CAD 23 (15)
 Diabetes 12 (8)
 PUD 12 (8)
Concomitant medications with NSAIDs—no. (%)  
 Anti-hypertensives 49 (33)
 PPIs 34 (23)
 Anti-lipidemics 24 (16)
 Anti-diabetics 13 (9)
Concomitant analgesics with NSAIDs—no. (%)  
 Muscle relaxant 20 (13.5)
  Topical group 7 (35)
  Systemic group 11(55)
  Combination group 2 (10)
 Acetaminophen 12 (12.5)
  Topical group 9 (75)
  Systemic group 1 (9)
  Combination group 2 (16)
 Vitamin B complex 7 (5)
  Topical group 0 (0)
  Systemic group 2 (29)
  Combination group 5 (71)
Sites of pain—no. (%)  
 Back 42 (28)
 Shoulder 27 (18)
 Multiple sites* 21 (14)
 Legs 15 (10)
 Neck 13 (9)
 Ankle 12 (8)
 Hands 6 (4)
 Knees 6 (4)
 Fingers 4 (3)
 Elbow 3 (2)
Used NSAIDs agents—no. (%)  
 Diclofenac 76 (51)
 Ketoprofen 45 (30)
 Aceclofenac 37 (25)
 Naproxen 18 (12)
 Piroxicam 4 (2)
 Etoricoxib 1 (0.5)
  1. Mild pain category included all patients with NRS 1–3; Moderate pain category included all patients with NRS 4–6
  2. Acute pain: <6 weeks of symptoms, sub-acute pain: 7–12 weeks of symptoms, chronic pain: >12 weeks of symptoms
  3. Anti-hypertensives included ACE inhibitors, CCBs, beta-blockers; PPIs included: omperazole, lanzoprazole and esomeprazole
  4. Anti-lipidemics included statins and fibrates; anti-diabetics included sulfonylureas, metformin and insulin
  5. Muscle relaxant included orphenadrine, chlorzoxazone and magnesium supplements
  6. no. number, % percentage, SD standard deviation, CAD coronary artery disease, PUD peptic ulcer disease, PPI proton pump inhibitor
  7. * Multiple sites variable is defined as involvement of 2 or more sites of pain