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Table 4 Relationships between sociodemographic variables and HLQ scores

From: Cultural adaptation and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ): robust nine-dimension Danish language confirmatory factor model

Variable 1. Feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers 2. Having sufficient information to manage my health 3. Actively managing my health 4. Social support for health 5. Appraisal of health information 6. Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers 7. Navigating the healthcare system 8. Ability to find good health information 9. Understand health information enough to know what to do
Sex
Female
 Mean (SD) 3.00 (0.59) 3.00 (2.53) 2.85 (0.50) 3.15 (0.56) 2.77 (0.54) 3.98 (0.60) 3.71 (0.60) 4.05 (0.59) 3.99 (0.51)
Male
 Mean (SD) 3.00 (0.61) 2.99 (0.54) 2.82 (0.62) 3.13 (0.52) 2.72 (0.58) 4.01 (0.58) 3.67 (0.62) 3.91 (0.63) 2.91 (0.62)
ANOVA F = 0.00; 1, 473 df; p = 0.950 F = 0.12; 1, 472 df; p = 0.732 F = 0.28; 1, 469 df; p = 0.600 F = 0.19; 1, 474 df; p = 0.666 F = 0.86; 1, 473 df; p = 0.354 F = 0.33; 1, 473 df; p = 0.569 F = 0.47; 1, 466 df; p = 0.493 F = 6.32; 1, 469 df; p = 0.012 F = 2.91; 1, 470 df; p = 0.090
ES
(95 % CI)
0.01
(−0.18 to 0.19)
0.04
(−0.23 to 0.14)
0.05
(−0.13 to 0.23)
0.04
(−0.14 to 0.22)
0.09
(−0.10 to 0.27)
−0.05
(−0.24 to 0.13)
0.06
(−0.12 to 0.25)
0.24
(0.05 to 0.42)
0.16
(−0.02 to 0.34)
Age
<65 years
 Mean (SD) 3.00 (0. 62) 3.05 (0.54) 2.84 (0.56) 3.20 (0.50) 2.77 (0.54) 3.97 (0.59) 3.69 (0.60) 4.01 (0.57) 3.95 (0.55)
≥65 years
 Mean (SD) 3.01 (0.53) 3.08 (0.52) 2.83 (0.51) 2.99 (0.55) 2.66 (0.60) 4.02 (0.55) 3.73 (0.61) 3.94 (0.67) 3.99 (0.61)
ANOVA F = 0.01; 1, 444 df; p = 0.923 F = 0.30; 1, 442 df; p = 0.586 F = 0.02; 1, 439 df; p = 0.879 F = 12.50; 1, 444 df; p > 0.001 F = 3.55; 1, 443 df; p = 0.060 F = 0.65; 1, 442 df; p = 0.421 F = 0.35; 1, 436 df; p = 0.556 F = 1.28; 1, 439 df; p = 0.258 F = 0.41; 1, 440 df; p = 0.521
ES
(95 % CI)
−0.01
(−0.23 to 0.21)
−0.06
(−0.28 to 0.16)
−0.02
(−0.21 to 0.24)
0.40
(0.18 to 0.62)
0.21
(−0.01 to 0.44)
−0.09
(−0.31 to 0.13)
−0.07
(−0.29 to 0.16)
0.13
(−0.09 to 0.35)
−0.07
(−0.30 to 0.15)
Education
≤Year 12
 Mean (SD) 2.98 (0.56) 2.97 (0.55) 2.77 (0.57) 3.08 (0.53) 2.64 (0.56) 3.95 (0.61) 3.59 (0.65) 3.83 (0.67) 3.86 (0.61)
High school diploma
 Mean (SD) 3.03 (0.62) 3.13 (0.53) 2.88 (0.55) 3.20 (0.51) 2.82 (0.56) 4.02 (0.57) 3.78 (0.56) 4.13 (0.51) 4.04 (0.51)
ANOVA F = 0.78; 1, 442 df; p = 0.379 F = 9.61; 1, 440 df; p = 0.002 F = 3.72; 1, 437 df; p = 0.054 F = 5.72; 1, 442 df; p = 0.017 F = 10.38; 1, 440 df; p = 0.001 F = 1.57; 1, 440 df; p = 0.210 F = 10.49; 1, 434 df; p = 0.001 F = 28.19; 1, 437 df; p = 0.000 F = 11.75; 1, 438 df; p = 0.001
ES
(95 % CI)
−0.08
(−0.27 to 0.10)
0.30
(−0.48 to −0.11)
−0.19
(−0.37 to −0.00)
0.23
(−0.42 to −0.04)
0.31
(−0.50 to −0.12)
−0.12
(−0.31 to 0.07)
0.31
(−0.50 to −0.12)
0.51
(−0.70 to −0.32)
0.33
(−0.52 to −0.14)
Mother tongue
Danish
 Mean (SD) 3.00 (0.59) 3.06 (0.54) 2.83 (0.56) 3.14 (0.53) 2.73 (0.56) 3.98 (0.59) 3.69 (0.60) 3.99 (0.59) 3.95 (0.56)
Other
 Mean (SD) 2.99 (0.67) 3.04 (0.53) 2.85 (0.51) 3.09 (0.42) 2.89 (0.53) 3.99 (0.62) 3.71 (0.69) 4.13 (0.67) 4.06 (0.59)
ANOVA F = 0.01; 1, 472 df; p = 0.936 F = 0.03; 1, 471 df; p = 0.548 F = 0.04; 1, 640.6 df; p = 0.835 F = 0.34; 1, 473 df; p = 0.558 F = 2.51; 1, 472 df; p = 0.114 F = 0.01; 1, 471 df; p = 0.931 F = 0.02; 1, 465 df; p = 0.893 F = 1.81; 1, 468 df; p = 0.180 F = 1.30; 1, 469 df; p = 0.255
ES
(95 % CI)
0.01
(−0.34 to 0.37)
0.03
(−0.32 to 0.38)
−0.04
(−0.39 to 0.32)
0.10
(−0.24 to 0.45)
−0.28
(−0.63 to −0.07)
−0.02
(−0.36 to 0.33)
−0.02
(−037 to 0.33)
−0.24
(−0.59 to 0.11)
−0.20
(−0.55 to 0.15)
Long illness or disability
Yes
 Mean (SD) 2.97 (0.59) 3.13 (0.49) 2.90 (0.54) 3.22 (0.45) 2.80 (0.53) 3.99 (0.59) 3.73 (0.60) 4.04 (0.58) 3.98 (0.54)
No
Mean (SD) 2.92 (0.58) 2.94 (0.60) 2.74 (0.55) 3.02 (0.58) 2.67 (0.59) 3.98 (0.62) 3.63 (0.61) 3.92 (0.63) 3.93 (0.58)
ANOVA F = 2.23; 1, 474 df; p = 0.136 F = 13.95; 1, 473 df; p = 0.000 F = 8.85; 1, 640.6 df; p = 0.003 F = 17.78; 1, 475 df; p = 0.000 F = 6.47; 1, 473 df; p = 0.011 F = 0.02; 1, 473 df; p = 0.900 F = 2.58; 1, 467 df; p = 0.109 F = 4.32; 1, 470 df; p = 0.038 F = 0.96; 1, 471 df; p = 0.328
ES
(95 % CI)
−0.14
(−0.32 to 0.04)
0.35
(0.16 to 0.53)
0.28
(0.09 to 0.46)
0.39
(0.21 to 0.58)
0.24
(0.05 to 0.42)
0.01
(−0.17 to 0.19)
0.15
(−0.03 to 0.34)
0.20
(0.01 to 0.38)
0.09
(−0.09 to 0.28)
Self-rated health
Excellent, very good
 Mean (SD) 3.06 (0.60) 3.17 (0.50) 2.94 (0.53) 3.26 (0.47) 2.84 (0.53) 4.05 (0.54) 3.79 (0.60) 4.10 (0.57) 4.04 (0.53)
Good, less good, poor
 Mean (SD) 2.92 (0.58) 2.91 (0.60) 270 (0.55) 2.99 (0.54) 2.64 (0.57) 3.92 (0.60) 3.56 (0.61) 3.85 (0.62) 3.95 (0.58)
ANOVA F = 6.33; 1, 474 df; p = 0.012 F = 27.67; 1, 473 df; p = 0.000 F = 23.98; 1, 470 df; p = 0.000 F = 32.01; 1, 475 df; p = 0.000 F = 15.58; 1, 473 df; p = 0.000 F = 5.81; 1, 473 df; p = 0.016 F = 18.30; 1, 467 df; p = 0.000 F = 19.80; 1, 470 df; p = 0.000 F = 14.17; 1, 471 df; p = 0.000
ES
(95 % CI)
0.23
(0.05 to 0.41)
0.49
(0.30 to 0.67)
0.45
(0.27 to 0.64)
0.52
(0.34 to 0.70)
0.36
(0.18 to 0.55)
0.22
(0.04 to 0.40)
0.40
(0.21 to 0.58)
0.41
(0.23 to 0.60)
0.35
(0.17 to 0.53)
  1. ES effect size