Skip to main content

Table 2 Data quality of the translated Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) in a Danish population (n = 481)

From: Cultural adaptation and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ): robust nine-dimension Danish language confirmatory factor model

Subscale/items Obs (n = 481) Missing [n (%)] Median Mean (SD) Strongly disagree (%) Disagree (%) Agree (%) Strongly agree (%) *Difficulty level (%)
(95 % CI)
1. Feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers
I have at least one healthcare provider who knows me well … 479 2 (0.4) 3 2.79 (0.89) 8.4 27.1 41.5 23.0 35.5 (31.3–39.9)
I have at least one healthcare provider I can discuss … 478 3 (0.6) 3 2.98 (0.75) 4.0 16.7 56.3 23.0 20.7 (17.3–24.6)
I have the healthcare providers I need to help me work … 480 1 (0.2) 3 3.13 (0.61) 1.0 9.8 64.0 25.2 10.8 (8.3–14.0)
I can rely on at least one healthcare provider … 477 4 (0.8) 3 3.08 (0.68) 2.1 13.0 59.7 25.2 15.1 (12.1–18.6)
     3.00 (0.60)      20.5
2. Having sufficient information to manage my health
I feel I have good information about health 478 3 (0.6) 3 3.15 (0.61) 1.3 8.8 64.0 25.9 10.0 (7.6–13.1)
I have enough information to help me deal with my … 478 3 (0.6) 3 3.09 (0.68) 2.3 11.9 60.5 25.3 14.2 (11.4–17.7)
I am sure I have all the information I need to manage … 478 3 (0.6) 3 3.01 (0.69) 3.1 13.4 62.6 20.9 16.5 (13.5–20.1)
I have all the information I need to look after my health 478 3 (0.6) 3 2.98 (0.68) 1.5 19.7 58.6 20.3 21.1 (17.7–25.0)
     3.06 (0.55)      15.5
3. Actively managing my health
I spend quite a lot of time actively managing my health 476 5 (1.1) 3 2.72 (0.75) 4.0 33.6 48.5 13.9 37.6 (33.3–42.1)
I make plans for what I need to do to be healthy 476 5 (1.1) 3 2.79 (0.79) 5.0 28.8 48.1 18.1 33.8 (29.7–38.2)
Despite other things in my life, I make time to be healthy 478 3 (0.6) 3 2.62 (0.74) 4.0 41.8 42.3 11.9 45.8 (41.4–50.3)
I set my own goals about health and fitness 479 2 (0.4) 3 3.00 (0.67) 1.7 17.5 60.3 20.5 19.2 (15.9–23.0)
There are things that I do regularly to make myself more healthy 480 1 (0.2) 3 3.04 (0.68) 2.3 14.0 60.8 22.9 16.3 (13.2–19.8)
     2.84 (0.55)      30.5
4. Social support for health
I can get access to several people who understand and … 478 3 (0.6) 3 3.10 (0.67) 1.7 12.8 59.4 26.2 14.4 (11.6–17.9)
When I feel ill, the people around me really understand … 478 3 (0.6) 3 2.90 (0.72) 4.2 18.8 59.6 17.4 23.0 (19.4–27.0)
If I need help, I have plenty of people I rely on 479 2 (0.4) 3 3.17 (0.72) 2.3 11.9 52.2 33.6 14.2 (11.3–17.6)
I have at least one person who can come to medical … 479 2 (0.4) 3 3.31 (0.66) 2.3 4.4 53.2 40.1 6.7 (4.8–9.3)
I have strong support from family and friends 480 1 (0.2) 3 3.21 (0.65) 1.5 8.5 57.3 32.7 10.0 (7.6–13.0)
     3.14 (0.52)      13.7
5. Appraisal of health information
I compare health information from different sources 479 2 (0.4) 3 2.85 (0.75) 5.2 21.5 56.6 16.7 26.7 (22.9–30.9)
When I see new information about health, I check up … 477 4 (0.8) 3 2.62 (0.80) 6.7 38.4 41.5 13.4 45.1 (40.6–49.6)
I always compare health information from different sources … 477 4 (0.8) 3 2.69 (0.80) 5.2 35.8 43.2 15.7 41.1 (36.7–45.6)
I know how to find out if the health information I receive is … 476 5 (1.1) 3 2.91 (0.75) 4.2 21.0 54.8 20.0 25.2 (21.5–29.3)
I ask healthcare providers about the quality of the … 479 2 (0.4) 3 2.68 (0.79) 6.1 34.2 45.5 14.2 40.3 (36.0–44.8)
     2.75 (0.56)      35.7
Subscale/items Obs (n = 481) Missing n (%) Median Mean (SD) Cannot do (%) Very difficult (%) Quite difficult (%) Quite easy (%) Very easy (%) *Difficulty level (%)
(95 % CI)
6. Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers
Make sure that healthcare providers understand your … 479 2 (0.4) 4 3.79 (0.75) 0.8 3.5 24.8 57.2 13.6 29.2 (25.3–33.5)
Feel able to discuss your health concerns with a … 480 1 (0.2) 4 4.11 (0.72) 0.4 2.7 10.2 58.3 28.3 13.3 (10.6–16.7)
Have good discussions about your health with doctors 479 2 (0.4) 4 4.05 (0.81) 1.0 3.5 13.2 53.7 28.6 17.7 (14.6–21.4)
Discuss things with healthcare providers until you understand … 477 4 (0.8) 4 3.98 (0.78) 1.0 2.9 16.8 55.8 23.5 20.8 (17.3–24.6)
Ask healthcare providers questions to get the … 477 4 (0.8) 4 4.00 (0.74) 0.6 2.3 16.4 57.7 23.1 19.3 (16.0–23.1)
     3.99 (0.59)       20.1
7. Navigating the healthcare system
Find the right healthcare 479 2 (0.4) 4 3.58 (0.86) 3.3 5.8 29.0 52.6 9.2 38.2 (33.9–42.7)
Get to see the healthcare providers I need to 478 3 (0.6) 4 3.72 (0.85) 1.0 7.3 25.9 49.8 15.9 34.3 (30.2–38.7)
Decide which healthcare provider you need to see … 478 3 (0.6) 4 3.87 (0.78) 1.3 2.3 23.2 54.4 18.8 26.8 (23.0–30.9)
Make sure you find the right place to get the health … 476 5 (1.1) 4 3.80 (0.75) 0.6 4.0 24.8 56.3 14.3 29.4 (25.5–33.7)
Find out what healthcare services you are entitled to … 475 6 (1.3) 4 3.47 (0.89) 1.5 11.2 38.3 37.3 11.8 50.9 (46.4–55.4)
Work out what is the best care for you 473 8 (1.7) 4 3.69 (0.77) 1.1 3.8 31.7 51.8 11.6 36.6 (32.3–41.0)
     3.69 (0.61)       36.0
8. Ability to find good health information
Find information about health problems 479 2 (0.4) 4 4.04 (0.70) 1.0 1.5 11.9 63.9 21.7 14.4 (11.5–17.9)
Find health information from several different places 477 4 (0.8) 4 3.98 (0.81) 1.9 2.7 14.0 58.3 23.1 18.7 (15.4–22.4)
Get information about health so you are up to date … 477 4 (0.8) 4 3.98 (0.71) 1.7 1.3 12.8 66.2 18.0 15.7 (12.7–19.3)
Get health information in words you understand … 475 6 (1.3) 4 3.92 (0.75) 0.8 3.8 16.0 60.8 18.5 20.6 (17.2–24.5)
Get health information by yourself 477 4 (0.8) 4 4.01 (0.77) 1.9 2.3 10.9 62.5 22.4 15.1 (12.1–18.6)
     3.99 (0.61)       16.9
9. Understanding health information well enough to know what to do
Confidently fill medical forms in the correct way 478 3 (0.6) 4 3.93 (0.83) 1.9 3.3 16.9 55.9 22,0 22.2 (18.7–26.1)
Accurately follow the instructions from healthcare providers 477 4 (0.8) 4 3.93 (0.64) 0.4 1.0 18.7 65.2 14.7 20.1 (16.8–24.0)
Read and understand written health information 476 5 (1.1) 4 4.02 (0.74) 0.8 2.3 14.1 59.2 23.5 17.2 (14.1–20.9)
Read and understand all the information on medication labels 477 4 (0.8) 4 3.81 (0.80) 1.5 3.8 22.9 55.8 16.1 28.1 (24.2–32.3)
Understand what healthcare providers are asking you to do 477 4 (0.8) 4 4.08 (0.71) 1.0 1.7 10.1 63.1 24.1 12.8 (10.1–16.1)
     3.95 (0.56)       20.1
  1. * For scales with agree/disagree response options (scales 1–5), the ‘difficulty’ level was calculated as the proportion responding disagree and strongly disagree as against agree or strongly agree. For the competency scales (scales 6–9), difficulty was calculated as the proportion responding cannot do, very difficult or quite difficult as against quite easy and very easy