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Table 4 Biases generated from the Gini coefficient using Trapezium, Simpson 1/3 and Simpson 3/8 numerical integration methods as compared with the exact estimation

From: Estimation of the Gini coefficient for the lognormal distribution of income using the Lorenz curve

Region/family head Trapezium rule Simpson’s 1/3 rule Simpson’s 3/8 rule
Greater Accra −0.0282 −0.0122 −0.0162
Eastern −0.0304 −0.014 −0.0206
Ashanti −0.0276 −0.0164 −0.0192
Volta −0.0256 −0.012 −0.0188
Western −0.0116 −0.0112 −0.0114
Brong Ahafo −0.0934 −0.0856 −0.0892
Central −0.016 −0.01 −0.0118
Northern −0.015 −0.003 −0.0048
Upper East −0.0402 −0.0202 −0.028
Upper West −0.1966 −0.0206 −0.027
Rural −0.0106 −0.0034 −0.004
Urban −0.0992 −0.0377 −0.0434
Male head −0.0204 −0.0026 −0.0038
Female head −0.0894 −0.0363 −0.0436
All −0.0549 −0.0195 −0.0237