Skip to main content

Table 1 Recent studies of synthesis HA powder from waste and various method in period of 2010–2015

From: The usability of ark clam shell (Anadara granosa) as calcium precursor to produce hydroxyapatite nanoparticle via wet chemical precipitate method in various sintering temperature

References Raw material Method pH value Powder properties
Venkatesan and Kim (2010) Tuna bone Drying Pure HA in nano-sized range
Wu et al. (2011) Oyster shell Ball mailing and heat treatment HA and β-TCP composition in the sample
Singh and Purohit (2011) Garden Snail Wet chemical precipitate 10 Pure HA in micron-sized range
Santhosh and Prabu (2013) Sea shell Wet chemical precipitate 10 Pure HA in nano-sized range
Rujitanapanich et al. (2014) Oyster shell Wet chemical precipitate 8–10 Improve crystallinity of HA at pH value of 10.
Kamalanathan et al. (2014) Eggshell Wet chemical precipitate 10.5 and above Pure HA at low temperature and present of α-TCP and TTCP at high temperature
Wu et al. (2015) Eggshell Wet chemical precipitate HA/β-TCP biphase at low temperature and pure HA at high temperature
Chen et al. (2015) Abalone shell Solid-state conversion 10 Mix of HA, calcite and aragonite composition in the sample. HA nanorod is obtained
Yelmilda et al. (2015) Cockle shell Hydrothermal 10–11 Pure HA in nano-sized range and no toxic effect
Shavandi et al. (2015) Mussel shell Rapid microwave irradiation 13 Pure HA in nano-sized range
This study Ark clam shell Wet chemical precipitate 8 Pure HA as-synthesized and nano-sized range. HA/β-TCP biphase composition was present at high temperature