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Table 1 Revised gap scores and functional relationships (Gap 5 = Gap 1 + Gap 8 + Gap 9 + Gap 10)

From: Applying revised gap analysis model in measuring hotel service quality

Question Gap 5 TP-TE Gap 1 MPTE-TE Gap 8 EPMR-MPTE Gap 9 EPD-EPMR Gap 10 TP-EPD
1. Promises to provide a service and does so −0.915 −1.036 0.767 −0.696 0.050
2. Shows dependability in handling service problems −0.915 −0.668 0.383 −0.630 0.000
3. Performs the service right the first time −0.881 −0.891 0.460 −0.500 0.050
4. Provides services at the time it promises to do so −0.932 −0.377 −0.077 −0.478 0.000
5. Tells guests exactly when the services will be performed −0.770 −0.555 0.107 −0.522 0.200
6. Gives prompt service −1.048 −0.750 0.174 −0.522 0.050
7. Always willing to help −0.811 −0.514 0.125 −0.522 0.100
8. Never too busy to respond to guests’ requests −0.611 −0.877 0.466 −0.500 0.300
9. Instils confidence in guests −0.610 −0.318 0.036 −0.478 0.150
10. Guests feel safe in the delivery of services −0.698 −0.500 0.174 −0.522 0.150
11. Guests feel safe and secure in their stay −0.648 −0.323 −0.053 −0.522 0.250
12. Polite and courteous employees −0.626 −0.509 0.170 −0.587 0.300
13. Have the knowledge to answer questions −0.741 −0.559 0.018 −0.500 0.300
14. Have the skill to perform the service −0.515 −0.736 0.528 −0.457 0.150
15. Gives individual attention −0.520 −0.650 0.239 −0.609 0.500
16. Deals with guests in a caring fashion −0.660 −0.500 0.283 −0.543 0.100
17. Has guests’ best interests at heart −0.448 −0.268 0.144 −0.674 0.350
18. Understands guests’ specific needs −0.783 −0.591 0.243 −0.435 0.000
19. Equipment, fixtures and fittings are modern looking −0.451 −0.814 0.559 −0.496 0.300
20. Facilities are visually appealing −0.241 −0.427 0.445 −0.609 0.350
21. Neat and professional employees −0.239 −0.518 0.644 −0.565 0.200
22. Materials are visually appealing −0.842 −0.873 0.403 −0.522 0.150
23. Fixture and fittings are comfortable −0.563 −0.514 0.494 −0.543 0.000
24. Equipment and facilities are easy to use −0.547 −0.468 0.362 −0.391 −0.050
25. Equipment and facilities are generally clean −0.558 −0.518 0.427 −0.717 0.250
26. Variety of food and beverages meet guests’ needs −0.628 -0.464 0.516 −0.630 −0.050
27. Services are operated at a convenient time −0.694 −0.518 0.383 −0.609 0.050
Average −0.662 −0.583 0.312 −0.547 0.156
  1. TE tourist expectation, TP tourist perception, MPTE managers’ perception for tourist s’ expectation, EPMR employees’ perception for managers’ requirement, EPD employees’ perception for delivery