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Table 4 Effect of crop diversification on productivity, income and food security in Zimbabwe

From: Crop diversification and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: adaptive management for environmental change

Variables (1) (2) (3)
Log_cereal Log_income Log_fcsdaily
Extension services contact 2.253** 11.413*** 0.543
  (1.051) (3.743) (0.397)
Observations 484 538 531
First stage F-statistic 7.947 10.96 11.42
  1. *** Significant at 1 % level; ** significant at 5 % level; * significant at 10 % level. In parentheses are robust standard errors. Crop diversification is instrumented by a dummy variable = 1 if farmer had any contact with agricultural extension workers; 0 otherwise. In all the specifications we include controls for district fixed effects, farmer’s age, experience, gender, education, and other dummy variables for other employment, household wealth and marital status