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Table 2 Impact of crop diversification: baseline specifications

From: Crop diversification and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: adaptive management for environmental change

Variables Log income Log_fcsdaily Log_legumeprod Log_cereal Hfood security hdds Cd_dum
Head of household −0.078 −0.015 −0.180 −0.049 0.023 −0.200 −0.271*
  (0.202) (0.027) (0.218) (0.131) (0.053) (0.141) (0.151)
Househ_male −0.035 −0.122 0.824 0.198 0.093 0.150 0.027
  (0.533) (0.094) (0.561) (0.143) (0.086) (0.085) (0.280)
Househ_age 0.017 −0.007 −0.013 0.013 −0.013 −0.075 0.037
  (0.025) (0.010) (0.043) (0.010) (0.012) (0.034) (0.029)
Househ_age2 −0.000 0.000 0.000 −0.000 0.000 0.001* −0.000
  (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Educ_secondary 0.528** −0.083 0.366 0.062 −0.080** −0.072 0.087
  (0.111) (0.083) (0.281) (0.116) (0.019) (0.149) (0.171)
Househ_married 0.409 0.103 −0.516 0.051 −0.080 −0.550** −0.290
  (0.757) (0.090) (0.491) (0.112) (0.093) (0.152) (0.286)
Househ_num_workers 0.103 −0.025 −0.066 −0.026 −0.008 0.113 −0.010
  (0.045) (0.016) (0.068) (0.015) (0.007) (0.048) (0.038)
Househ_landsize 0.524*** 0.014 0.055 0.022 0.000 0.237 0.158**
  (0.087) (0.012) (0.034) (0.041) (0.010) (0.152) (0.071)
Househ_landsq −0.014* 0.000 −0.001 −0.001 −0.000 −0.008 −0.005**
  (0.005) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001) (0.000) (0.004) (0.002)
Distance_market 0.001 −0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 −0.001
  (0.001) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001)
Farm_experience 0.047 0.001 0.055 −0.014 −0.000 −0.027 −0.055***
  (0.027) (0.005) (0.041) (0.012) (0.003) (0.036) (0.021)
Farm_exp2 −0.001 0.000 −0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001***
  (0.001) (0.000) (0.001) (0.000) (0.000) (0.001) (0.000)
Occupation_farmer 0.624 0.073 −0.199 0.105 −0.047 −0.312 −0.125
  (0.491) (0.102) (0.162) (0.083) (0.075) (0.280) (0.206)
Asset_quintile2 0.380 −0.036 −0.638* 0.131 −0.025 −0.188 0.642***
  (0.244) (0.056) (0.269) (0.058) (0.037) (0.444) (0.209)
Asset_quintile3 0.404 −0.043 −0.474*** −0.164 −0.054 −0.597 0.326
  (0.305) (0.059) (0.074) (0.133) (0.064) (0.406) (0.210)
Asset_quintile4 0.462 −0.015 −0.897** 0.099 −0.040 −0.201 0.529**
  (0.586) (0.075) (0.172) (0.233) (0.065) (0.563) (0.225)
Asset_quintile5 1.017** −0.061 −0.432 0.417*** 0.000 −0.397 0.589**
  (0.298) (0.080) (0.323) (0.067) (0.066) (0.590) (0.241)
Goromonzi −0.857*** 0.074** 0.472* 0.203* 0.064** 0.092 0.042
  (0.111) (0.021) (0.156) (0.074) (0.020) (0.225) (0.192)
Wedza −1.783*** 0.298*** −1.826*** −1.187*** 0.098** 1.648*** 0.265
  (0.031) (0.025) (0.064) (0.041) (0.019) (0.077) (0.224)
Mudzi −2.095*** 0.249*** −0.193** −1.461*** 0.038 0.919** 0.970***
  (0.061) (0.022) (0.049) (0.071) (0.030) (0.165) (0.236)
Extension_dum        0.384***
        (0.137)
Info_outputprice        0.370**
        (0.154)
Roadntwk_good        0.184
        (0.160)
Transport_costlow        0.258*
        (0.145)
Infoaccess_dum        −0.297*
        (0.175)
Crop diversification 0.583 −0.095 0.496* 0.192 0.054 0.340**  
  (0.329) (0.057) (0.181) (0.119) (0.037) (0.086)  
Observations 538 531 405 484 531 531 538
  1. *** Significant at 1 % level; ** significant at 5 % level; * significant at 10 % level. In parentheses are robust standard errors that account for clustering at the district level. Except for the household food security which binary (hence probit regression estimated), all the other models are based on a continuous outcome variable (hence OLS repression). In the baseline specifications, crop diversification is assumed to be exogenous