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Table 1 Descriptive statistics and variable definitions

From: Crop diversification and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: adaptive management for environmental change

  Variable definitions Count Mean SD
Cereal Cereal output per hectare (kg) 522 1525.739 1388.541
Fcsdaily Daily food consumption score 594 11.133 5.483
Hfood_security Binary variable = 1 if household is food secure; 0 otherwise (based of household food insecurity access score) 594 0.221 0.415
Hdds Household dietary diversity score 594 7.022 2.468
Income Income from crop sales measured in US$ 601 236.952 807.411
Legumeprod Legume productivity (legume output per hectare measured in kg/ha) 459 1342.412 1995.213
Cd_dum Binary variable = 1 if smallholder farmer practiced crop diversification; 0 otherwise 575 0.805 0.396
Extension_dum Binary variable = 1 if farmer received extension services; 0 otherwise 601 0.606 0.489
Info_outputprice Binary variable = 1 if farmer has information regarding output prices in the market; 0 otherwise 601 0.641 0.480
Roadntwk_good Binary variable = 1 if the road network is good in the area; 0 otherwise 601 0.290 0.454
Transport_costlow Binary variable = 1 if transport costs are relatively low in the area; 0 otherwise 601 0.526 0.500
Infoaccess_dum Binary variable = 1 if farmer has easy access to information; 0 otherwise 599 0.743 0.437
Househ_resp_hhead Binary variable = 1 if farmer is the household head; 0 otherwise 601 0.567 0.496
Househ_male Binary variable = 1 if male; 0 otherwise 601 0.757 0.429
Househ_age Household’s age in years 595 51.447 15.520
Househ_age2 Household’s age squared 595 2887.269 1682.320
Educ_secondary Binary variable = 1 if farmer completed secondary education or more; 0 otherwise 601 0.478 0.500
Househ_married Binary variable = 1 if farmer is married; 0 otherwise 601 0.744 0.437
Househ_num_workers Number of household workers 599 3.249 1.809
Househ_landsize Size of arable land in hectares 601 2.344 2.661
Househ_landsq Size of arable land squared 601 12.565 74.541
Distance_market Distance to the nearest main crop market in kilometers 571 98.732 82.921
Farm_experience Number of years in farming 595 20.011 14.358
Farm_exp2 Square of number of years in farming 595 606.229 749.987
Occupation_farmer Binary variable = 1 if full-time farmer; 0 otherwise 601 0.864 0.344
Asset_quintile1 Binary variable = 1 if farmer is in asset quintile 1 (poorest); 0 otherwise 601 0.201 0.401
Asset_quintile2 Binary variable = 1 if farmer is in asset quintile 2; 0 otherwise 601 0.200 0.400
Asset_quintile3 Binary variable = 1 if farmer is in asset quintile 3; 0 otherwise 601 0.200 0.400
Asset_quintile4 Binary variable = 1 if farmer is in asset quintile 4; 0 otherwise 601 0.200 0.400
Asset_quintile5 Binary variable = 1 if farmer is in asset quintile 5 (richest); 0 otherwise 601 0.200 0.400
Wedza Binary variable = 1 if farmer lives in Wedza district; 0 otherwise 601 0.198 0.399
Mudzi Binary variable = 1 if farmer lives in Mudzi district; 0 otherwise 601 0.200 0.400
Guruve Binary variable = 1 if farmer lives in Guruve district; 0 otherwise 601 0.311 0.463
Goromonzi Binary variable = 1 if farmers lives in Goromonzi district; 0 otherwise 601 0.291 0.455