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Table 3 Cox-regression of independent variables to overall survival

From: Treatment outcomes of spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma with hemorrhagic shock: a multicenter study

Variables Estimated HR (95 % CI) P Adjusted HR (95 % CI) P
Treatment   <0.001***   <0.001***
 Conservative treatment 1 1
TAE alone 0.04 (0.02–0.08) <0.001*** 0.05 (0.02–0.17) <0.001***
 Staged surgery 0.03 (0.01–0.06) <0.001*** 0.02 (0.00–0.09) <0.001***
 Emergency surgery 0.10 (0.05–0.20) <0.001*** 0.13 (0.03–0.50) 0.003**
Age (years) 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 0.019* 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.595
Gender (male) 1.24 (0.79–1.95) 0.353 0.37 (0.17–0.81) 0.012*
Etiology   0.028*   <0.001*
 HBV 1 1
 HCV 1.30 (0.75–2.23) 0.349 0.97 (0.43–2.19) 0.936
 Others 0.36 (0.16–0.82) 0.015* 0.07 (0.02–0.27) <0.001***
Liver cirrhosis (yes) 7.25 (3.17–16.58) <0.001*** 4.73 (1.76–12.73) 0.002**
Child-Pugh stage   <0.001***   <0.001***
 A 1 1
 B 3.52 (2.28–5.44) <0.001*** 5.75 (2.86–11.54) <0.001***
 C 15.54 (9.64–25.05) <0.001*** 16.09 (5.43–47.65) <0.001***
Hemoglobin (g/L) 0.96 (0.94–0.98) <0.001*** 0.92 (0.87–0.98) 0.006**
Platelet (×109/L) 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.422 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.057
INR 4.13 (2.97–5.73) <0.001*** 1.51 (0.87–2.63) 0.144
Albumin (g/L) 0.88 (0.84–0.92) <0.001*** 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 0.528
Total bilirubin (mmol/L) 1.07 (1.06–1.09) <0.001*** 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.132
ALT (IU/L) 1.00 (1.00–1.01) <0.001*** 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.381
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.48 (0.20–1.14) 0.097 0.15 (0.02–0.99) 0.049*
AFP (µg/L) 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.019* 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.012*
Size of lesions (cm) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.662 0.80 (0.68–0.93) 0.004**
Multiple tumors (yes) 1.34 (0.95–1.89) 0.094 0.25 (0.09–0.73) 0.011*
Portal vein (yes) 1.13 (0.80–1.61) 0.486 8.63 (2.79–26.66) <0.001***
Modified UICC stage   0.002**   0.008**
 2 1 1
 3 1.13 (0.65–1.97) 0.657 5.20 (1.89–14.32) 0.001**
 4A 1.56 (0.92–2.64) 0.098 2.10 (0.75–5.86) 0.157
 4B 4.38 (1.92–10.02) <0.001*** 2.98 (0.65–13.55) 0.159
Morphology of lesions   <0.001***   0.247
 Nodular 1 1
 Infiltrative 3.29 (1.85–5.83) <0.001*** 1.19 (0.61–2.34) 0.604
 Pedunculated 2.14 (1.27–3.62) 0.004** 0.87 (0.48–1.58) 0.657
 Cirrhotomimetic 16.79 (7.02–40.18) <0.001*** 1.87 (0.65–5.38) 0.246
  1. AFP α-fetoprotein, ALT alanine aminotransferase, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, INR international normalized ratio, UICC Union for International Cancer Control, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001