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Table 1 The clinical data of 162 patients with hemorrhagic shock and spontaneous rupture of HCC

From: Treatment outcomes of spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma with hemorrhagic shock: a multicenter study

Variables Conservative treatment (n = 35) TAE alone (n = 21) Staged surgery (n = 27) Emergency surgery (n = 79) Total (n = 162) P
Age (years) 53.6 ± 5.9 61.5 ± 3.3 58.3 ± 4.6 58.8 ± 6.8 58.0 ± 6.4 <0.001***
Gender (male) 29 (82.9 %) 15 (71.4 %) 24 (88.9 %) 68 (86.1 %) 136 (84.0 %) 0.404
Etiology       0.226
 HBV 26 (74.3 %) 18 (85.7 %) 23 (85.2 %) 65 (82.3 %) 132 (81.5 %)  
 HCV 3 (8.6 %) 3 (14.3 %) 3 (11.1 %) 6 (7.6 %) 15 (9.3 %)  
 Others 6 (17.1 %) 0 (.0 %) 1 (3.7 %) 8 (10.1 %) 15 (9.3 %)  
Liver cirrhosis (yes) 35 (100.0 %) 21 (100.0 %) 20 (74.1 %) 66 (83.5 %) 142 (87.7 %) <0.001***
Child-Pugh stage       <0.001***
 A 3 (8.6 %) 3 (14.3 %) 15 (55.6 %) 53 (67.1 %) 74 (45.7 %)  
 B 9 (25.7 %) 9 (42.9 %) 9 (33.3 %) 17 (21.5 %) 44 (27.2 %)  
 C 23 (65.7 %) 9 (42.9 %) 3 (11.1 %) 9 (11.4 %) 44 (27.2 %)  
Hemoglobin (g/L) 83.9 ± 6.2 95.7 ± 11.2 91.5 ± 4.6 91.3 ± 9.7 90.3 ± 9.3 <0.001***
Platelet (×109/L) 106.7 ± 14.7 132.1 ± 47.0 117.6 ± 19.9 108.7 ± 16.2 112.8 ± 24.1 <0.001***
INR 2.4 ± 1.3 1.4 ± .2 1.3 ± .2 1.5 ± .3 1.6 ± .7 <0.001***
Albumin (g/L) 29.2 ± 4.8 34.1 ± 3.7 32.6 ± 3.6 33.5 ± 3.4 32.5 ± 4.2 <0.001***
Total bilirubin (mmol/L) 61.9 ± 35.2 20.5 ± 6.3 24.4 ± 8.9 24.9 ± 11.6 32.3 ± 24.3 <0.001***
ALT (IU/L) 182.6 ± 152.6 143.2 ± 59.6 191.8 ± 79.3 148.1 ± 77.2 162.2 ± 98.2 0.094
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.1 ± .1 1.3 ± .1 1.3 ± .2 1.3 ± .2 1.3 ± .2 <0.001***
AFP (µg/L) 7532.9 ± 5515.6 9136.7 ± 2421.3 9836.3 ± 6619.4 8518.0 ± 6895.8 8605.1 ± 6149.1 0.513
Size of lesions (cm) 8.8 ± 1.6 9.0 ± 2.0 9.0 ± 1.4 8.8 ± 2.3 8.9 ± 1.9 0.959
Multiple tumors (yes) 20 (57.1 %) 9 (42.9 %) 12 (44.4 %) 34 (43.0 %) 75 (46.3 %) 0.546
Portal vein (yes) 12 (34.3 %) 9 (42.9 %) 9 (33.3 %) 29 (36.7 %) 59 (36.4 %) 0.906
Modified UICC stage       0.002**
 2 6 (17.1 %) 3 (14.3 %) 1 (3.7 %) 15 (19.0 %) 25 (15.4 %)  
 3 6 (17.1 %) 9 (42.9 %) 17 (63.0 %) 24 (30.4 %) 56 (34.6 %)  
 4A 17 (48.6 %) 9 (42.9 %) 9 (33.3 %) 37 (46.8 %) 72 (44.4 %)  
 4B 6 (17.1 %) 0 (.0 %) 0 (.0 %) 3 (3.8 %) 9 (5.6 %)  
Morphology of lesions       <0.001***
 Nodular 1 (2.9 %) 3 (14.3 %) 13 (48.1 %) 15 (19.0 %) 32 (19.8 %)  
 Infiltrative 10 (28.6 %) 5 (23.8 %) 0 (.0 %) 23 (29.1 %) 38 (23.5 %)  
 Pedunculated 18 (51.4 %) 11 (52.4 %) 14 (51.9 %) 40 (50.6 %) 83 (51.2 %)  
 Cirrhotomimetic 6 (17.1 %) 2 (9.5 %) 0 (.0 %) 1 (1.3 %) 9 (5.6 %)  
  1. AFP α-fetoprotein, ALT alanine aminotransferase, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, INR international normalized ratio, UICC Union for International Cancer Control
  2. ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001