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Table 4 Comparison of joint angle parameters between elderly women and very elderly women

From: An exploratory investigation of changes in gait parameters with age in elderly Japanese women

Parameters Group 1 (elderly women) Group 2 (very elderly women) p value Effect size
Hip joint
 Peak extension angle (°) 19.4 ± 4.0 18.4 ± 4.8 NS 0.22
 Peak extension timing (%) 54.2 ± 1.2 54.9 ± 0.7 <0.05 0.71
 Peak flexion angle (°) −27.0 ± 2.6 −27.8 ± 2.4 NS 0.32
 Peak flexion timing (%) 88.1 ± 1.8 88.9 ± 1.6 NS 0.47
 Maximal angle range (°) 46.4 ± 3.8 46.3 ± 4.4 NS 0.02
Knee joint
 Peak extension angle (°) 172.0 ± 5.4 170.1 ± 5.8 NS 0.34
 Peak extension timing (%) 40.8 ± 3.2 42.0 ± 3.6 NS 0.35
 First peak flexion angle (°) 157.2 ± 6.0 156.6 ± 4.2 NS 0.11
 First peak flexion timing (%) 13.4 ± 1.1 13.1 ± 1.8 NS 0.20
 Second peak flexion angle (°) 114.4 ± 5.2 115.3 ± 4.6 NS 0.18
 Second peak flexion timing (%) 73.4 ± 1.1 74.3 ± 0.9 <0.01 0.89
 Maximal angle range (°) 57.5 ± 4.5 54.8 ± 4.9 NS 0.57
Ankle joint
 First peak plantarflexion angle (°) 102.1 ± 4.7 101.9 ± 3.6 NS 0.48
 First peak plantarflexion timing (%) 5.9 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.2 NS 0.40
 Second peak plantarflexion angle (°) 111.6 ± 5.7 111.4 ± 6.3 NS 0.03
 Second peak plantarflexion timing (%) 63.9 ± 1.5 65.0 ± 1.5 <0.05 0.73
 First peak dorsiflexion angle (°) 84.5 ± 4.3 84.4 ± 3.5 NS 0.02
 First peak dorsiflexion timing (%) 41.6 ± 5.3 43.2 ± 3.5 NS 0.35
 Second peak dorsiflexion angle (°) 92.0 ± 5.0 92.4 ± 3.2 NS 0.09
 Second peak dorsiflexion timing (%) 83.8 ± 2.4 84.7 ± 1.6 NS 0.44
 Maximal angle range (°) 27.1 ± 4.1 27.0 ± 4.2 NS 0.02
  1. All values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, unless otherwise stated
  2. NS not significant