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Table 1 Characteristics of patients

From: A randomized controlled study comparing a vessel sealing system with the conventional technique in axillary lymph node dissection for primary breast cancer

Variables Vessel sealing system (BVSS) Conventional devices (CONV) P value
Number of patients 31 30  
Age at diagnosis (y/o) 59.1 ± 15.6 57.6 ± 11.2 0.663
BMI 21.8 ± 4.0 21.5 ± 3.1 0.731
Comorbidities    
 HTN 5 (16.1 %) 2 (6.7 %) 0.246
 DM 2 (6.5 %) 1 (3.3 %) 0.573
 Smoking 11 (35.5 %) 4 (13.3 %) 0.045
Clinical TNM stage    0.055
 0 0 (0.0 %) 1 (3.3 %)  
 1 8 (26.7 %) 1 (3.3 %)  
 2 18 (60.0 %) 21 (70.0 %)  
 3 4 (13.3 %) 7 (23.3 %)  
Clinical T stage    0.111
 Tis 0 (0.0 %) 1 (3.3 %)  
 T1 11 (35.5 %) 3 (10.0 %)  
 T2 16 (51.6 %) 20 (66.7 %)  
 T3 1 (3.2 %) 2 (6.7 %)  
 T4 3 (9.7 %) 4 (13.3 %)  
Clinical N stage    0.73
 N0 11 (35.5 %) 9 (30.0 %)  
 N1 17 (54.8 %) 19 (63.3 %)  
 N2 1 (3.2 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
 N3 2 (6.5 %) 2 (6.7 %)  
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy 21 (67.7 %) 24 (80.0 %) 0.277
Receptor status    
 Hormone receptor positive 19 (61.3 %) 12 (40.0 %) 0.286
 HER2 positive 4 (13.3 %) 10 (24.1 %) 0.047
Histology    0.331
 Ductal carcinoma 31 (100 %) 28 (96.5 %)  
 Lobular carcinoma 0 (0.0 %) 1 (3.4 %)  
 Others 0 (0.0 %) 1 (3.4 %)  
Nuclear grade    0.679
 1 11 (35.5 %) 13 (43.3 %)  
 2 10 (32.3 %) 7 (23.3 %)  
 3 7 (22.6 %) 5 (16.7 %)  
 Unknown 3 (9.7 %) 5 (16.7 %)  
Type of surgery    0.394
 Total mastectomy 18 (58.1 %) 18 (60.0 %)  
 Breast conserving surgery 12 (38.7 %) 12 (40.0 %)  
Total number of removed lymph nodes 20.3 ± 7.4 18.4 ± 6.7 0.268
Pathological tumor size 2.1 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 1.3 0.290
Total number of pathologically    
Positive lymph nodes    0.273
 0 9 (29.0 %) 10 (33.3 %)  
 1 7 (22.6 %) 10 (33.3 %)  
 2 7 (22.6 %) 4 (13.3 %)  
 3 1 (3.2 %) 4 (13.3 %)  
 >4 7 (22.6 %) 2 (6.6 %)  
Lymphovascular invasion 16 (51.6 %) 12 (40.0 %) 0.363
Mean days until drain removal 6.4 ± 2.9 8.2 ± 3.8 0.033
Total drain volume (mL) 365.3 ± 242.2 625.1 ± 446.6 0.009
Total operating times (minutes) 180.9 ± 65.5 168.6 ± 30.3 0.670
Axillary dissection operating time (minutes) 65.6 ± 19.6 70.3 ± 21.6 0.371
Estimated blood loss (mL) 18.2 ± 31.1 20.6 ± 26.3 0.663
Postoperative complications    0.673
 Postoperative bleeding 0 (0.0 %) 1 (3.3 %)  
 Hematoma 0 (0.0 %) 1 (3.3 %)  
 Seroma 13 (43.3 %) 11 (37.9 %)  
 Wound infection 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
 Flap necrosis 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
 Skin burn 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
Postoperative hospital stay (days) 8.8 ± 3.1 10.1 ± 3.1 0.077