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Tables 14 Units root test of panel data

From: Do remittances promote financial development in Africa?

Variable ADF PP
(a) Unit root tests at levels
CRD 188.046 [0.0000***] 147.063 [0.0001***]
BDP 74.7735[0.9611] 108.266 [0.2247]
M2 102.197[0.8432] 79.8639[0.8760]
REM 110.473 [0.1519] 115.876 [0.0818*]
PCGDP 24.8632 [1.0000] 16.1173 [1.0000]
LOGGDP 12.3640 [1.0000] 17.723 [1.0000]
INF 382.192 [0.0000***] 421.447 [0.0000***]
FDI 257.796 [0.0000***] 241.607 [0.0000***]
EXP 138.533 [0.0044***] 126.6071 [0.0275**]
(b)Unit root tests at First Differencing
BDP 610.372 [0.0000***] 731.285 [0.0000***]
M2 514.287 [0.0000***] 647.593 [0.0000***]
REM 469.343 [0.0000***] 708.781 [0.0000***]
PCGDP 332.315 [0.0000***] 431.134 [0.0000***]
LOGGDP 435.274 [0.0000***] 476.631 [0.0000***]
  1. p values are in brackets []. The symbol *, **, and *** denote significance at the 10, 5, and 1 % levels, respectively