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Table 2 The onset latency of postural muscles (mean ± SE) relative to Deltoid burst onset are compared by repeated measure and MANOVA between muscles and groups accordingly

From: Preparatory brain activity and anticipatory postural adjustments accompanied by externally cued weighted-rapid arm rise task in non-specific chronic low back pain patients and healthy subjects

Muscles Control LBP F value; groups comparison
R.A 72.34 ± 10.17 78.23 ± 10.74 0.16
E.O 0.45 ± 8.13 27 ± 8.58 5.05*
L.TrA/IO −16.72 ± 10.16 18.73 ± 10.73 5.76*
R.TrA/IO 4.76 ± 5.74 28.23 ± 6.06 7.91**
E.S −15.48 ± 3.49 −20.11 ± 3.68 0.83
Gc.M 8.07 ± 6.17 −12.11 ± 6.52 5.06*
F value; muscles comparison 19.42*** 22.35***  
  1. The negative values indicating burst onset of postural muscles prior to deltoid. Asterisks represent Significant values (P value < 0.05)
  2. LBP low back pain, R.A rectus abdominis, E.O external oblique, L.TrA/IO and R.TrA/IO left and right transverse abdominis/internal oblique, E.S erector spinae, Gc.M medial head of gastrocnemius
  3. P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001