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Table 2 Physiological and perceptual data during fixed intensity running trial

From: Combined active and passive heat exposure induced heat acclimation in a soccer referee before 2014 FIFA World Cup

Measure Pre (±SD) Post (±SD) Statistical significance or standardised difference score [d (90 % confidence interval)] Probability (% chance) that the difference is less, similar to or greater than smallest worthwhile change
Fixed intensity trial
HR mean entire trial (beats min−1) 149 ± 36 139 ± 36 d = −0.26
[−0.85 to 0.32]
57 % less
HR mean running (beats min−1) 169 ± 17 160 ± 17 d = −0.54
[−1.23 to 0.15]
79 % less
RPE 13 ± 4 13 ± 3 d = −0.07
[−0.69 to 0.54]
41 % similar
\(\dot{{V}}\) O2 (L min−1) 3.32 ± 0.90 2.88 ± 0.88 d = −0.50
[−1.38 to 0.39]
72 % less
RER 1.17 ± 0.09 1.08 ± 0.09 P > 0.05 NA
Mean Tytemp (°C) 37.2 ± 0.6 36.6 ± 0.5 P < 0.05 87 % less
Change in Tytemp (°C) 1.7 1.9   40 % greater
Resting mean SKT (°C) 34.7 ± 0 33.7 ± 0.1   98 % less
Resting mean core to skin temperature gradient (°C) 1.8 2.2 NA 65 % less
Mean Thermal Perception 7.7 ± 0.7
(“Hot”)
7.4 ± 0.7
(“Warm”)
P < 0.05 58 % less
  1. Data are presented as mean average ± standard deviation (SD) where appropriate