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Table 1 Physiological and performance data before and after heat acclimation training

From: Combined active and passive heat exposure induced heat acclimation in a soccer referee before 2014 FIFA World Cup

Measure Pre (±SD) Post (±SD) Statistical significance or standardised difference score [d (90 % confidence interval)] Probability (% chance) and qualitative statement
Resting plasma volume (% change) 0 7.1   NA
Sweat rate (L h−1)
 Performance trial 1.62 2.52   NA
 Fixed intensity trial 0.96 1.38   
Performance trial
 Number of sprints 15 20 NA NA
 Total distance covered (m) 2247 2897 NA NA
 Mean speed (km h−1) 18.0 ± 1.0 17.6 ± 0.3 d = −0.46
[−1.09 to 0.17]
76 % less
 Mean thermal perception 8.5 ± 0.6 8.2 ± 0.4 P < 0.05 58 % less
 Mean RPE 17 ± 2 17 ± 2 P > 0.05 38 % similar
 Mean heart rate (beats min−1) 175 ± 8 178 ± 7 d = 0.31
[−0.32 to 0.95]
66 % greater
 Change in Tytemp (°C) 1.8 1.7 NA 50 % less
  1. Data are presented as mean average ± standard deviation (SD) where appropriate