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Table 1 Sprint performance (mean ± SD)

From: Scapula behavior associates with fast sprinting in first accelerated running

  Condition Cohen’s d Power
Free Constraint
2-m sprint time (s) 0.73 ± 0.04 0.76 ± 0.04* 0.75 0.707
Step length to first step (m) 0.88 ± 0.07 0.84 ± 0.07* 0.42 0.346
Step frequency to first step (Hz) 2.15 ± 0.18 2.16 ± 0.17 0.08 0.080
Variables during the first step
 Increase in sprint speed (m s−1) 0.94 ± 0.10 0.91 ± 0.08* 0.32 0.246
 Sprint speed at instant of take-off (m s−1) 4.31 ± 0.20 4.19 ± 0.23* 0.55 0.490
 Forward leaning angle of center of mass (°) 25.48 ± 1.99 24.49 ± 1.95* 0.52 0.430
 Contact time (s) 0.186 ± 0.021 0.186 ± 0.010 0.02 0.057
  1. * Significantly (P < 0.05) different from the free condition