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Table 1 Distribution of crash sample characteristics

From: Exploring background risk factors for fatigue crashes involving truck drivers on regional roadway networks: a case control study in Jiangxi and Shaanxi, China

Risk contributes Jiangxi (N = 5447) Shaanxi (N = 3721)
Frequency % Frequency %
Driver factors
Gender     
 Male 5014 92.05 3498 94.01
 Female 433 7.95 223 5.99
Marital status
 Single/divorced/widow 389 7.14 182 4.89
 Living with a partner 5058 92.86 3539 95.11
Agea
 Young 1031 18.93 556 14.94
 Adult 3504 64.33 2674 71.86
 Old 912 16.74 491 13.20
Driving experience in yearsb
 Novice 1594 29.26 923 24.81
 Practician 2432 44.65 1928 51.81
 Proficient 1053 19.33 653 17.55
 Expert 368 6.76 217 5.83
Driver’s occupation
 Employed workers 4979 91.41 3291 88.44
 Self-employed 367 6.74 364 9.78
 Military and policy 30 0.55 14 0.38
 Others 71 1.30 52 1.40
Vehicle factors
Vehicle type
 Goods vehicles 5146 94.47 3511 94.36
 Other vehicle types 301 5.53 210 5.64
Commercial transport
 Yes 5154 94.62 3495 93.93
 No 293 5.38 226 6.07
Vehicle insurance
 Yes 5058 92.86 3343 89.84
 No 389 7.14 378 10.16
Vehicle safety state
 Fit 4791 87.96 3318 89.17
 Unfit 656 12.04 403 10.83
Vehicle brake performance
 Good 4285 78.67 3009 80.87
 Poor 1162 21.33 712 19.13
Roadway factors
Road typec
 Expressway 2262 41.53 1384 37.19
 The first class highway 1567 28.77 984 26.44
 The second class highway 1053 19.33 813 21.85
 The third class highway 226 4.15 188 5.05
 The fourth class highway 47 0.86 96 2.58
 Rural road 28 0.51 41 1.10
 Urban roadd 264 4.85 215 5.78
Highway specific locationse
 Sharp curve 1087 19.96 985 26.47
 Long steep grade 2361 43.34 1827 49.10
 Interchange 49 0.90 28 0.75
 Highway ramp 112 2.06 131 3.52
 Weaving section 317 5.82 247 6.64
 Tunnel 429 7.88 825 22.17
 Bridge 833 15.29 351 9.43
 Toll station 33 0.61 22 0.59
Urban road specific locationsf
 Intersectiong 104 39.39 123 57.21
 Elevated road 13 4.92 19 8.84
 Ramp 21 7.95 15 6.98
 Under-crossing tunnel 62 23.48 44 20.47
 Others 69 26.14 35 16.28
Pavement condition
 Dry 3631 66.66 2548 68.48
 Wet 1816 33.34 1173 31.52
Environment factors
Time of crash
 0 am–6 am 1907 35.01 1211 32.55
 6 am–8 pm 2661 48.85 1824 49.02
 8 pm–12 pm 879 16.14 686 18.44
Day of the weekh
 Weekdays 4339 79.66 3076 82.67
 Weekends 1108 20.34 645 17.33
Seasonsi
 Spring 936 17.18 347 9.33
 Summer 1869 34.31 1422 38.22
 Autumn 577 10.59 326 8.76
 Winter 2065 37.91 1626 43.70
Public holidayj
 Yes 189 3.47 79 2.12
 No 5258 96.53 3642 97.88
Weathercondition
 Fine 3725 68.39 2859 76.83
 Adverse 1722 31.61 862 23.17
Visibility condition
 Good 3950 72.52 3108 83.53
 Bad 1497 27.48 613 16.47
Traffic violations k
Alcohol-impaired driving
 Drunk 281 5.16 167 4.49
 Not drunk 5166 94.84 3554 95.51
Disregarding the speed limits
 Speeding 3871 71.07 2976 79.98
 Not speeding 1576 28.93 745 20.02
Overloading behavior
 Overloading 3672 67.41 2405 64.63
 Not overloading 1775 32.59 1316 35.37
Risky following
 Keep unsafe distance 1716 31.50 1359 36.52
 Keep safe distance 3731 68.50 2362 63.48
Failure to use seat belt
 Yes 1033 18.96 862 23.17
 No 4414 81.04 2859 76.83
Cell phone use
 Use 582 10.68 589 15.83
 Not use 4865 89.32 3132 84.17
Illegal meeting
 Performed 649 11.91 337 9.06
 Not performed 4798 88.09 3384 90.94
Crash characteristics
Injury outcome
 Slight injury 849 15.59 533 14.32
 Moderate injury 1327 24.36 1188 31.93
 Serious injury 1775 32.59 1083 29.11
 Fatal injury 1496 27.46 917 24.64
Type of collision
 Head-on collision 1181 21.68 932 25.05
 Sideswipes 1427 26.20 1130 30.37
 Rear-end collision 1326 24.34 803 21.58
 Rollover 408 7.49 171 4.60
 Runoff 944 17.33 606 16.29
 Othersl 161 2.96 79 2.12
Collision partner
 A single truck 846 15.53 696 18.70
 A truck and a passenger vehiclem 1378 25.30 451 12.12
 Two trucks 307 5.64 282 7.58
 Multiple vehiclesn 2735 50.21 2117 56.89
 Truck(s) and vulnerable road user(s)o 181 3.32 175 4.70
  1. aDivided into three groups: young (≤30 years old), adult (30–55 years old), and old (≥55 years old)
  2. bDivided into four groups: novice (≤3 years), practician (3–5 years), proficient (6–15 years), and expert (≥15 years)
  3. cAccording to the Technical Standards for Highway (JTG B01 2003), released by the Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China in 2003
  4. dIncluding urban expressways, arterials, sub-arterials and minor streets and roads
  5. eFrequent occurrence locations of crashes of highways are also known as “black spot”. Here a crash may be attributed to two or more contributing factors. For example, a truck runs off the road at a sharp curve while driving along a long steep grade
  6. fCrashes associated with one roadway factor/total crashes occurring on urban roads
  7. gIncluding road level crossing (with and without signal controlled), under-crossing, and interchange
  8. hWeekends = 17:00 Friday to 24:00 Sunday; weekdays = 0:00 Monday to 16:59 Friday
  9. iSpring = March to May; summer = June to August; autumn = September to November; winter = December to February
  10. jIncluding New Year, Chinese New Year, Qing Ming Festival, International Labor Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, and National Day
  11. kOnly typical risky driving behaviors were included in this study, based on the original TADS records
  12. lIncluding those involving vulnerable road users, etc
  13. mPassenger vehicles refer to passenger cars and coaches; Here coach involved crashes account for a very small percentage in crash sample
  14. nReferring to three vehicles or more with at least one truck
  15. oIncluding pedestrians, bicyclists (considering those on electric bikes or low speed vehicles such as scooters, mopeds and agricultural tricycles et al.), motorcyclists or pedal cyclists