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Table 3 Comparisons of the hip and knee ROMs of the kick leg and the lengthening and lengthening speed of selected kick-leg muscles in both skills (fan kick vs. axe kick)

From: Biomechanical modeling as a practical tool for predicting injury risk related to repetitive muscle lengthening during learning and training of human complex motor skills

Joint ROM (°) Muscle lengthening
Muscle Max lengthening (% of its rest length) Lengthening speed (m/s)
Fan kick Axe kick Fan kick Axe kick Fan kick Axe kick
Hip
 Flex/Ext 146.3 ± 6.6 162.2 ± 8.4 Rect Fem 104.2 ± 4.1 105.9 ± 5.0 0.26 ± 0.02 0.48 ± 0.05
 Abd/Add 87.8 ± 5.6 51.6 ± 6.1 Vast Lat 109.5 ± 4.5 103.6 ± 3.9 0.09 ± 0.00 0.21 ± 0.01
 Rot 54.1 ± 4.1 57.9 ± 5.3 Bi Fem 127.3 ± 5.2 132.0 ± 4.7 0.44 ± 0.03 0.69 ± 0.05
Knee
 Flex/Ext 108.9 ± 6.3 65.3 ± 4.7 Add Mag 197.7 ± 5.3 171.3 ± 4.9 0.42 ± 0.04 0.61 ± 0.04
 Abd/Add 27.4 ± 4.6 28.8 ± 4.1 Gracilis 134.7 ± 4.8 133.8 ± 3.6 0.13 ± 0.00 0.46 ± 0.05
 Rot 28.2 ± 4.1 21.5 ± 4.3 Glut Med 127.9 ± 4.0 116.3 ± 3.7 0.27 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.02
Semi 129.2 ± 4.4 133.8 ± 4.3 0.50 ± 0.03 0.71 ± 0.06
  1. Italics: muscles in risk
  2. Bold italics: the value is significantly high (p < 0.05) than that of the counterpart
  3. Flex/Ext flexion/extension. Abd/Add abduction/adduction, Rot rotation
  4. Rect Fem rectus femoris, Vast Lat vastus lateralis, Bi Fem biceps femoris, Add Mag adductor magnus, Glut Med glutaeus medius, Semi semimembranosus