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Table 6 Optimized parameters by PSO, DE and IWO algorithms (best from 30 runs)

From: Optimal design of proportional–integral controllers for stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell power plant using differential evolution algorithm

Parameter PSO DE IWO
Kphy −7 −6.9994 −6.9247
Kihy −4 −4.0002 −4.4760
Kpox −10 −9.9993 −9.9482
Kiox −7 −7.0012 −7.8852