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Table 5 Eigenvalues obtained by PSO, DE and IWO (best from 30 runs)

From: Optimal design of proportional–integral controllers for stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell power plant using differential evolution algorithm

Method PSO DE IWO
Eigenvalues −0.0171 −0.0171 −0.0171
0.8537 + 0.4752i 0.8536 + 0.4755i 0.8501 + 0.5938i
0.8537 − 0.4752i 0.8536 − 0.4755i 0.8501 − 0.5938i
0.1782 + 0.3873i 0.1782 + 0.3874i 0.1765 + 0.4151i
0.1782 − 0.3873i 0.1782 − 0.3874i 0.1765 − 0.4151i
−0.0128 −0.0128 −0.0128
−0.2000 −0.2000 −0.2000