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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate predictors of missed lipohypertrophy (LH) identification by well trained (WT) and non-trained (NT) health professionals (HPs)

From: A suitable palpation technique allows to identify skin lipohypertrophic lesions in insulin-treated people with diabetes

  Univariate p Multivariate p
NT
 Female gender 1.91 (0.32–11.50) 0.480   
 BMI (Kg/m2) 1.29 (0.89–1.87) 0.172  
 LH site
  Abdomen 1.00   
  Arm 10.75 (2.11–54.63) 0.004 6.04 (1.11–32.79) 0.037
  Thigh 1.90 (0.34–10.67) 0.467 0.999
 LH shape
  Protruding 1.00   
  Flat 6.27 (1.25–31.62) 0.026 0.84 (0.14–5.20) 0.855
 LH size
  Diameter ≤4 cm 6.90 (1.34–35.41) 0.021 3.78 (0.92–15.58) 0.066
Overall
 NT versus WT 24.87 (5.69–108.74) <0.001 24.27 (5.58–105.58) <0.001
 Female gender 1.88 (0.31–11.44) 0.492  
 BMI (Kg/m2) 1.31 (0.91–1.89) 0.150  
 LH site
  Abdomen 1.00   
  Arm 12.49 (2.65–58.92) 0.001 7.20 (1.35–38.36) 0.021
  Thigh 1.86 (0.34–10.18) 0.475  
 LH shape
  Protruding 1.00   
  Flat 7.11 (1.43–35.29) 0.016 0.92 (0.14–5.84) 0.930
 LH size
  Diameter ≤4 cm 6.63 (1.24–35.50) 0.027 3.17 (0.78–12.81) 0.106
  1. Univariate analysis in the overall group was performed after adjusting for HPs’ experience (NT o WT)