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Table 7 Results of the mixed-effects regression analyses for change in running speed across years in male marathoners

From: Male and female Ethiopian and Kenyan runners are the fastest and the youngest in both half and full marathon

Parameter Estimate SE DF T p value 95 % CI
Upper Lower
Austria        
 Constant term 119.014606 78.665485 352.571 1.513 0.131 −35.698004 273.727215
 Year −0.053124 0.039182 352.518 −1.356 0.176 −0.130183 0.023936
 Cage −0.053906 0.018537 374.501 −2.908 0.004 −0.090356 −0.017456
 Cage2 0.002858 0.001180 374.482 2.423 0.016 0.000538 0.005179
France        
 Constant term 12.224516 32.400764 1943.299 0.377 0.706 −51.319391 75.768423
 Year 0.000774 0.016138 1943.341 0.048 0.962 −0.030876 0.032424
 Cage −0.042530 0.007858 2185.277 −5.412 0.000 −0.057940 −0.027119
 Cage2 0.001220 0.000546 2369.390 2.235 0.025 0.000150 0.002290
Great Britain
 Constant term 168.008185 77.417245 265.471 2.170 0.031 15.578253 320.438116
 Year −0.076916 0.038558 265.527 −1.995 0.047 −0.152834 −0.000997
 Cage −0.003050 0.013447 228.557 −0.227 0.821 −0.029546 0.023446
 Cage2 0.000290 0.001143 251.114 0.254 0.800 −0.001961 0.002541
Germany        
 Constant term −26.616836 25.282326 2510.280 −1.053 0.293 −76.193187 22.959515
 Year 0.019883 0.012593 2510.229 1.579 0.114 −0.004811 0.044578
 Cage −0.007977 0.005083 2186.239 −1.570 0.117 −0.017944 0.001990
 Cage2 0.000147 0.000344 2231.865 0.427 0.669 −0.000528 0.000822
Italy        
 Constant term 82.322203 91.156734 288.896 0.903 0.367 −97.093338 261.737745
 Year −0.033932 0.045393 288.917 −0.748 0.455 −0.123275 0.055411
 Cage −0.058144 0.019311 261.042 −3.011 0.003 −0.096169 −0.020119
 Cage2 0.000191 0.001214 322.202 0.157 0.875 −0.002199 0.002580
Japan        
 Constant term 49.803604 170.811818 103.019 0.292 0.771 −288.960603 388.567811
 Year −0.018372 0.085088 103.003 −0.216 0.829 −0.187123 0.150380
 Cage −0.086555 0.031059 107.375 −2.787 0.006 −0.148123 −0.024987
 Cage2 0.001926 0.001684 107.206 1.144 0.255 −0.001412 0.005264
Switzerland
 Constant term 25.878076 7.195438 22,373.993 3.596 0.000 11.774513 39.981639
 Year −0.005404 0.003584 22,373.571 −1.508 0.132 −0.012428 0.001620
 Cage −0.002664 0.001012 17,294.094 −2.633 0.008 −0.004647 −0.000681
 Cage2 −0.000235 6.583543E−5 17,295.657 −3.565 0.000 −0.000364 −0.000106
Canada        
 Constant term −106.659105 171.420255 81.342 −0.622 0.536 −447.709874 234.391663
 Year 0.059022 0.085420 81.336 0.691 0.492 −0.110927 0.228971
 Cage −0.050496 0.030360 68.401 −1.663 0.101 −0.111073 0.010080
 Cage2 0.006306 0.001988 62.037 3.172 0.002 0.002332 0.010280
Principality of Liechtenstein
 Constant term 236.267620 241.570336 77.992 0.978 0.331 −244.662729 717.197969
 Year −0.109511 0.120377 77.993 −0.910 0.366 −0.349164 0.130142
 Cage 0.034908 0.042003 73.075 0.831 0.409 −0.048802 0.118618
 Cage2 0.001951 0.003222 72.523 0.606 0.547 −0.004471 0.008373
United States of America
 Constant term 179.260596 91.774367 188.890 1.953 0.052 −1.773750 360.294941
 Year −0.082585 0.045712 188.881 −1.807 0.072 −0.172757 0.007587
 Cage 0.003829 0.014234 167.444 0.269 0.788 −0.024273 0.031931
 Cage2 0.000319 0.000945 149.574 0.338 0.736 −0.001548 0.002186
Belgium        
 Constant term 220.791210 167.798520 108.714 1.316 0.191 −111.789810 553.372230
 Year −0.102767 0.083486 108.675 −1.231 0.221 −0.268238 0.062704
 Cage −0.029095 0.030424 119.603 −0.956 0.341 −0.089335 0.031145
 Cage2 0.000194 0.002163 96.384 0.090 0.929 −0.004099 0.004486
Spain        
 Constant term −130.890461 169.416654 5.528 −0.773 0.471 −554.170969 292.390047
 Year 0.072247 0.084311 5.528 0.857 0.427 −0.138405 0.282899
 Cage −0.050933 0.030883 5.028 −1.649 0.160 −0.130185 0.028319
 Cage2 0.001306 0.004902 56.210 0.266 0.791 −0.008513 0.011125
Poland        
 Constant term −173.031933 285.748419 50.731 −0.606 0.548 −746.769620 400.705753
 Year 0.092292 0.142290 50.736 0.649 0.520 −0.193403 0.377986
 Cage −0.019397 0.026881 30.284 −0.722 0.476 −0.074273 0.035480
 Cage2 −0.000780 0.001881 35.444 −0.414 0.681 −0.004597 0.003038
Kenya        
 Constant term 31.727578 85.570347 33.000 0.371 0.713 −142.366603 205.821759
 Year −0.007558 0.042603 33.000 −0.177 0.860 −0.094234 0.079119
 Cage −0.192695 0.042007 33.000 −4.587 0.000 −0.278159 −0.107230
 Cage2 −0.005855 0.002387 33.000 −2.453 0.020 −0.010712 −0.000999
Ethiopia        
 Constant term 185.271970 155.298262 15.000 1.193 0.251 −145.738439 516.282379
 Year −0.085404 0.077000 15.000 −1.109 0.285 −0.249526 0.078718
 Cage −0.708418 0.358618 15.000 −1.975 0.067 −1.472793 0.055957
 Cage2 −0.034788 0.014889 15.000 −2.337 0.034 −0.066522 −0.003053
  1. Data for Non-African runners are sorted in order of the number of finishers of each country
  2. Cage centered age, Cage 2 centered age squared