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Table 6 Results of the mixed-effects regression analyses for change in running speed across years in female marathoners

From: Male and female Ethiopian and Kenyan runners are the fastest and the youngest in both half and full marathon

Parameter Estimate SE DF T p value 95 % CI
Upper Lower
Ethiopia        
 Constant term 147.793813 321.794557 36.803 0.459 0.649 −504.341821 799.929446
 Year −0.067200 0.160260 36.789 −0.419 0.677 −0.391981 0.257581
 Cage −0.041199 0.045279 39.863 −0.910 0.368 −0.132721 0.050323
 Cage2 −0.000791 0.001556 27.290 −0.508 0.615 −0.003983 0.002401
Kenya        
 Constant term 12.643951 134.413655 31.473 0.094 0.926 −261.327748 286.615651
 Year 0.001310 0.067007 31.470 0.020 0.985 −0.135269 0.137890
 Cage 0.004584 0.031623 33.197 0.145 0.886 −0.059740 0.068908
 Cage2 0.000926 0.001504 28.885 0.616 0.543 −0.002150 0.004002
Austria        
 Constant term 319.000059 151.126310 115.787 2.111 0.037 19.669554 618.330564
 Year −0.152749 0.075258 115.782 −2.030 0.045 −0.301810 −0.003688
 Cage −0.059867 0.033352 105.113 −1.795 0.076 −0.125998 0.006264
 Cage2 0.003428 0.002369 91.358 1.447 0.151 −0.001277 0.008132
France        
 Constant term −69.668517 73.011026 423.181 −0.954 0.341 −213.177937 73.840903
 Year 0.041647 0.036362 423.171 1.145 0.253 −0.029825 0.113119
 Cage −0.007736 0.019534 524.950 −0.396 0.692 −0.046111 0.030640
 Cage2 −0.000529 0.001375 513.572 −0.385 0.701 −0.003230 0.002172
Great Britain
 Constant term −32.852390 202.043235 96.505 −.163 0.871 −433.878261 368.173481
 Year 0.023039 0.100666 96.499 0.229 0.819 −0.176769 0.222846
 Cage 0.057327 0.032752 62.676 1.750 0.085 −0.008129 0.122782
 Cage2 0.001266 0.003499 87.271 0.362 0.718 −0.005689 0.008220
Germany        
 Constant term −57.013601 61.704926 558.626 −0.924 0.356 −178.215628 64.188427
 Year 0.035049 0.030733 558.613 1.140 0.255 −0.025317 0.095415
 Cage −0.018041 0.010289 360.049 −1.754 0.080 −0.038274 0.002192
 Cage2 −0.000917 0.000669 425.048 −1.370 0.172 −0.002232 0.000399
Italy        
 Constant term 12.643951 134.413655 31.473 0.094 0.926 −261.327748 286.615651
 Year 0.001310 0.067007 31.470 0.020 0.985 −0.135269 0.137890
 Cage 0.004584 0.031623 33.197 0.145 0.886 −0.059740 0.068908
 Cage2 0.000926 0.001504 28.885 0.616 0.543 −0.002150 0.004002
Japan        
 Constant term −556.744907 324.548340 44.540 −1.715 0.093 −1210.605221 97.115408
 Year 0.284663 0.161722 44.521 1.760 0.085 −0.041159 0.610486
 Cage 0.002091 0.056456 36.733 0.037 0.971 −0.112328 0.116511
 Cage2 −0.001140 0.002306 47.736 −.494 0.623 −0.005776 0.003496
Switzerland        
 Constant term 19.166945 16.359822 5730.128 1.172 0.241 −12.904491 51.238380
 Year −0.001923 0.008148 5729.834 −0.236 0.813 −0.017896 0.014051
 Cage 0.000169 0.002164 3789.103 0.078 0.938 −0.004074 0.004412
 Cage2 −0.000271 0.000151 3903.532 −1.798 0.072 −0.000566 2.449756E−5
Canada        
 Constant term −84.838438 294.677013 21.509 −0.288 0.776 −696.771246 527.094370
 Year 0.049412 0.146619 21.493 0.337 0.739 −0.255073 0.353897
 Cage −0.016467 0.105620 20.899 −0.156 0.878 −0.236180 0.203247
 Cage2 −0.005069 0.008542 26.178 −0.593 0.558 −0.022621 0.012484
Principality of Liechtenstein
 Constant term 134.396574 114.930718 8.628 1.169 0.274 −127.312878 396.106027
 Year −0.058934 0.057365 8.641 −1.027 0.332 −0.189530 0.071661
 Cage 0.000824 0.052738 11.742 0.016 0.988 −0.114363 0.116012
 Cage2 −0.000182 0.005460 13.149 −0.033 0.974 −0.011963 0.011599
United States of America
 Constant term 147.793813 321.794557 36.803 0.459 0.649 −504.341821 799.929446
 Year −0.067200 0.160260 36.789 −0.419 0.677 −0.391981 0.257581
 Cage −0.041199 0.045279 39.863 −0.910 0.368 −0.132721 0.050323
 Cage2 −0.000791 0.001556 27.290 −0.508 0.615 −0.003983 0.002401
Belgium        
 Constant term 832.877872 481.304102 14.000 1.730 0.106 −199.416758 1865.172502
 Year −0.409025 0.239884 14.000 −1.705 0.110 −0.923525 0.105475
 Cage 0.113307 0.073728 14.000 1.537 0.147 −0.044823 0.271437
 Cage2 −0.008065 0.005950 14.000 −1.356 0.197 −0.020826 0.004695
Spain        
 Constant term 578.599477 459.378710 18.000 1.260 0.224 −386.519821 1543.718775
 Year −0.280844 0.228570 18.000 −1.229 0.235 −0.761053 0.199365
 Cage 0.085302 0.054009 9.306 1.579 0.148 −0.036264 0.206868
 Cage2 −0.006105 0.004734 8.582 −1.290 0.231 −0.016894 0.004684
Poland        
 Constant term −1007.316625 429.834844 14.000 −2.343 0.034 −1929.220678 −85.412573
 Year 0.507475 0.213730 14.000 2.374 0.032 0.049069 0.965881
 Cage −0.022253 0.077353 14.000 −0.288 0.778 −0.188158 0.143652
 Cage2 0.001802 0.005561 14.000 0.324 0.751 −0.010126 0.013730
  1. Data for Non-African runners are sorted in order of the number of finishers of each country
  2. Cage centered age, Cage 2 centered age squared