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Table 3 Results of the mixed-effects regression analyses for change in running speed in female half-marathoners across years

From: Male and female Ethiopian and Kenyan runners are the fastest and the youngest in both half and full marathon

Parameter Estimate SE DF T p value 95 % CI
Upper Lower
Ethiopia        
 Constant term 293.167388 371.574985 43.863 0.789 0.434 −455.758951 1042.093726
 Year −0.140332 0.184932 43.873 −0.759 0.452 −0.513068 0.232405
 Cage −0.173148 0.135294 36.958 −1.280 0.209 −0.447291 0.100995
 Cage2 −0.004387 0.006022 27.717 −0.728 0.472 −0.016727 0.007954
Kenya        
 Constant term −21.426837 150.844832 36.330 −.0142 0.888 −327.257984 284.404310
 Year 0.017207 0.075087 36.326 0.229 0.820 −0.135029 0.169443
 Cage −0.144332 0.060829 27.148 −2.373 0.025 −0.269111 −0.019552
 Cage2 −0.003215 0.003653 30.133 −0.880 0.386 −0.010674 0.004243
Austria        
 Constant term 31.578045 29.443671 597.888 1.072 0.284 −26.247547 89.403637
 Year −0.011598 0.014658 597.871 −0.791 0.429 −0.040386 0.017190
 Cage −0.028602 0.006916 600.177 −4.136 0.000 −0.042184 −0.015021
 Cage2 0.000663 0.000536 608.882 1.237 0.217 −0.000390 0.001716
Canada        
 Constant term −125.514888 73.115253 155.945 −1.717 0.088 −269.938931 18.909154
 Year 0.066249 0.036396 155.933 1.820 0.071 −0.005644 0.138143
 Cage −0.020679 0.014519 170.268 −1.424 0.156 −0.049340 0.007982
 Cage2 7.822872E−5 0.001161 162.137 0.067 0.946 −0.002214 0.002370
Czech Republic
 Constant term −220.270108 155.839548 40.611 −1.413 0.165 −535.086061 94.545845
 Year 0.113694 0.077609 40.610 1.465 0.151 −0.043086 0.270474
 Cage −0.080535 0.051903 45.473 −1.552 0.128 −0.185044 0.023974
 Cage2 0.003476 0.004529 46.743 0.768 0.447 −0.005637 0.012589
Denmark        
 Constant term −144.099673 142.620810 55.173 −1.010 0.317 −429.897999 141.698652
 Year 0.076052 0.070989 55.174 1.071 0.289 −0.066203 0.218308
 Cage −.012618 0.030636 58.407 −0.412 0.682 −0.073934 0.048697
 Cage2 −.000446 0.002495 59.214 −0.179 0.859 −0.005439 0.004546
Spain        
 Constant term −5.366288 67.028907 141.702 −0.080 0.936 −137.872163 127.139587
 Year 0.007615 0.033366 141.702 0.228 0.820 −0.058344 0.073574
 Cage 0.001968 0.014710 129.823 0.134 0.894 −0.027134 0.031069
 Cage2 −0.000865 0.001169 144.790 −0.740 0.461 −0.003175 0.001445
France        
 Constant term 51.171466 15.295732 4653.214 3.345 0.001 21.184581 81.158350
 Year −0.020670 0.007613 4653.140 −2.715 0.007 −0.035595 −0.005744
 Cage −0.023120 0.003408 4755.183 −6.783 0.000 −0.029801 −0.016438
 Cage2 −0.000602 0.000252 4810.855 −2.392 0.017 −0.001095 −0.000109
Great Britain
 Constant term 28.901729 42.017402 749.113 0.688 0.492 −53.584137 111.387595
 Year −0.009779 0.020917 749.099 −0.468 0.640 −0.050842 0.031283
 Cage 0.009513 0.009652 844.541 0.986 0.325 −0.009432 0.028457
 Cage2 −0.001723 0.000775 871.578 −2.222 0.027 −0.003245 −0.000201
Germany        
 Constant term 15.158368 14.956731 4456.047 1.013 0.311 −14.164251 44.480986
 Year −0.003244 0.007446 4455.945 −0.436 0.663 −0.017841 0.011353
 Cage −0.023479 0.002955 3893.061 −7.946 0.000 −0.029272 −0.017686
 Cage2 −0.000163 0.000198 3910.190 −0.822 0.411 −0.000551 0.000225
Italy        
 Constant term 55.277603 39.067728 844.859 1.415 0.157 −21.403589 131.958795
 Year −0.022114 0.019449 844.831 −1.137 0.256 −0.060287 0.016060
 Cage −0.049367 0.010292 954.174 −4.797 0.000 −0.069565 −0.029169
 Cage2 −0.001914 0.000776 961.174 −2.467 0.014 −0.003436 −0.000391
Japan        
 Constant term 70.707877 63.986213 101.377 1.105 0.272 −56.217842 197.633596
 Year −0.031946 0.031855 101.405 −1.003 0.318 −.0095133 0.031242
 Cage −0.047542 0.017703 159.965 −2.685 0.008 −0.082504 −0.012579
 Cage2 0.001527 0.000930 166.855 1.641 0.103 −0.000310 0.003363
Principality of Liechtenstein
 Constant term 10.483455 64.869741 255.178 0.162 0.872 −117.264786 138.231696
 Year 0.000233 0.032291 255.155 0.007 0.994 −0.063358 0.063823
 Cage −0.012747 0.013132 275.553 −0.971 0.333 −0.038598 0.013105
 Cage2 −0.001544 0.001094 290.811 −1.411 0.159 −0.003697 0.000610
Luxembourg
 Constant term −47.666634 97.322485 48.909 −0.490 0.626 −243.252737 147.919469
 Year 0.027753 0.048451 48.906 0.573 0.569 −0.069617 0.125123
 Cage −0.023725 0.013396 31.814 −1.771 0.086 −0.051017 0.003567
 Cage2 0.001603 0.001046 30.499 1.533 0.136 −0.000532 0.003737
Netherlands
 Constant term 133.938661 125.455169 149.777 1.068 0.287 −113.951882 381.829205
 Year −0.062003 0.062457 149.769 −0.993 0.322 −0.185413 0.061407
 Cage −0.011427 0.021283 105.363 −0.537 0.592 −0.053626 0.030771
 Cage2 0.000320 0.001177 84.597 0.272 0.786 −0.002020 0.002660
Norway        
 Constant term −487.272616 173.193914 54.820 −2.813 0.007 −834.386566 −140.158666
 Year 0.247478 0.086290 54.821 2.868 0.006 0.074537 0.420419
 Cage −0.115170 0.020554 36.162 −5.603 0.000 −0.156850 −0.073491
 Cage2 0.002664 0.001240 33.459 2.150 0.039 0.000144 0.005185
Portugal        
 Constant term −474.101901 231.004145 55.403 −2.052 0.045 −936.968950 −11.234851
 Year 0.241610 0.114974 55.397 2.101 0.040 0.011234 0.471987
 Cage −0.006509 0.059010 54.339 −0.110 0.913 −0.124800 0.111783
 Cage2 0.004436 0.005816 53.398 0.763 0.449 −0.007227 0.016100
Switzerland
 Constant term 17.415465 3.082751 85,158.813 5.649 0.000 11.373300 23.457631
 Year −0.003429 0.001535 85,155.422 −2.235 0.025 −0.006437 −0.000422
 Cage −0.010236 0.000499 71,948.591 −20.518 0.000 −0.011214 −0.009259
 Cage2 −0.000417 3.413093E−5 70,505.318 −12.217 0.000 −0.000484 −0.000350
United States of America
 Constant term −102.180938 71.308524 295.142 −1.433 0.153 −242.518553 38.156677
 Year 0.055053 0.035488 295.135 1.551 0.122 −0.014789 0.124895
 Cage −0.011404 0.012867 301.169 −0.886 0.376 −0.036725 0.013917
 Cage2 0.001037 0.000928 305.711 1.118 0.265 −0.000789 0.002863
Australia
 Constant term 535.990276 98.301322 13.686 5.453 0.000 324.700562 747.279990
 Year −0.262740 0.048925 13.688 −5.370 0.000 −0.367899 −0.157580
 Cage 0.063641 0.055873 47.462 1.139 0.260 −0.048733 0.176014
 Cage2 −0.002360 0.002842 46.702 −0.830 0.411 −0.008078 0.003358
Belgium
 Constant term 7.038611 107.628613 165.205 0.065 0.948 −205.466290 219.543511
 Year 0.000697 0.053552 165.225 0.013 0.990 −0.105038 0.106433
 Cage 0.000626 0.015637 117.693 0.040 0.968 −0.030341 0.031593
 Cage2 0.000700 0.001032 108.364 0.678 0.499 −0.001345 0.002745
Hungary
 Constant term −275.257629 154.694094 51.000 −1.779 0.081 −585.818982 35.303724
 Year 0.142544 0.076947 51.000 1.853 0.070 −0.011933 0.297021
 Cage −0.083478 0.047940 51.000 −1.741 0.088 −0.179721 0.012765
 Cage2 0.000717 0.002086 51.000 0.344 0.732 −0.003470 0.004904
Ireland        
 Constant term −33.859940 165.743508 57.989 −0.204 0.839 −365.633001 297.913121
 Year 0.021718 0.082524 57.993 0.263 0.793 −0.143473 0.186909
 Cage −0.036636 0.037101 37.244 −0.987 0.330 −0.111793 0.038521
 Cage2 −0.000562 0.003459 32.491 −0.162 0.872 −0.007603 0.006480
Poland        
 Constant term −72.726997 104.051935 60.961 −0.699 0.487 −280.794379 135.340384
 Year 0.040347 0.051798 60.974 0.779 0.439 −0.063230 0.143924
 Cage −0.053476 0.023476 65.801 −2.278 0.026 −0.100351 −0.006601
 Cage2 −0.001860 0.001865 69.955 −0.997 0.322 −0.005579 0.001859
Russia        
 Constant term −106.441127 155.565229 42.567 −0.684 0.498 −420.260572 207.378318
 Year 0.057206 0.077443 42.538 0.739 0.464 −0.099022 0.213434
 Cage −0.072584 0.042398 55.257 −1.712 0.093 −0.157542 0.012374
 Cage2 0.004846 0.003169 47.538 1.529 0.133 −0.001528 0.011219
Sweden        
 Constant term 75.820147 143.966277 104.839 0.527 0.600 −209.643494 361.283787
 Year −0.033856 0.071641 104.838 −0.473 0.637 −0.175909 0.108197
 Cage −0.016537 0.020415 67.482 −0.810 0.421 −0.057279 0.024206
 Cage2 0.001067 0.001713 108.162 0.623 0.535 −0.002328 0.004462
Finland        
 Constant term −46.926724 100.378904 55.066 −0.467 0.642 −248.085146 154.231697
 Year 0.027006 0.049943 55.068 0.541 0.591 −0.073079 0.127091
 Cage −0.053711 0.015750 46.121 −3.410 0.001 −0.085411 −0.022011
 Cage2 0.001208 0.001076 44.445 1.123 0.268 −0.000960 0.003376
Greece        
 Constant term −105.607974 339.956176 18.425 −0.311 0.760 −818.651669 607.435721
 Year 0.056703 0.169175 18.428 0.335 0.741 −0.298130 0.411535
 Cage 0.011301 0.080214 18.335 0.141 0.889 −0.157002 0.179604
 Cage2 0.005226 0.004315 20.000 1.211 0.240 −0.003776 0.014227
Republic of South Africa
 Constant term 195.281269 261.100120 30.776 0.748 0.460 −337.393318 727.955856
 Year −0.093079 0.130031 30.771 −0.716 0.479 −0.358359 0.172201
 Cage −0.033597 0.065427 31.996 −0.514 0.611 −0.166869 0.099674
 Cage2 0.000214 0.003268 27.237 0.066 0.948 −0.006488 0.006916
Brazil        
 Constant term 178.944876 212.772674 32.077 0.841 0.407 −254.418110 612.307863
 Year −0.084760 0.105910 32.083 −0.800 0.429 −0.300469 0.130949
 Cage −0.054561 0.036085 32.952 −1.512 0.140 −0.127981 0.018860
 Cage2 0.003708 0.002066 37.833 1.795 0.081 −0.000475 0.007891
Mexico        
 Constant term −208.359308 343.548300 13.049 −0.606 0.555 −950.268215 533.549600
 Year 0.108288 0.170848 13.048 0.634 0.537 −0.260670 0.477246
 Cage 0.017053 0.033477 1.149 0.509 0.691 −0.297964 0.332070
 Cage2 −0.004284 0.002132 1.006 −2.009 0.293 −0.031003 0.022435
Argentina        
 Constant term 171.161142 449.529264 12.527 0.381 0.710 −803.726404 1146.048688
 Year −0.080710 0.223646 12.527 −0.361 0.724 −0.565727 0.404306
 Cage −0.121342 0.107487 7.809 −1.129 0.292 −0.370266 0.127582
 Cage2 0.004002 0.011220 5.403 0.357 0.735 −0.024206 0.032210
India        
 Constant term −180.991329 118.481416 23.000 −1.528 0.140 −426.088812 64.106153
 Year 0.095159 0.058967 23.000 1.614 0.120 −0.026822 0.217141
 Cage 0.034212 0.026224 23.000 1.305 0.205 −0.020037 0.088460
 Cage2 0.002970 0.002305 23.000 1.288 0.210 −0.001798 0.007737
Israel        
 Constant term 1791.341424 749.677965 4.526 2.389 0.068 −198.063460 3780.746308
 Year −0.884457 0.372205 4.522 −2.376 0.069 −1.872464 0.103550
 Cage −0.130351 0.107475 8.468 −1.213 0.258 −0.375823 0.115121
 Cage2 −0.026869 0.011891 11.589 −2.260 0.044 −0.052880 −0.000858
Slovenia        
 Constant term −31.714993 134.226844 13.547 −0.236 0.817 −320.508524 257.078539
 Year 0.020363 0.066884 13.547 0.304 0.765 −0.123540 0.164266
 Cage −0.084123 0.046744 8.409 −1.800 0.108 −0.191009 0.022763
 Cage2 −0.001050 0.002818 9.076 −0.373 0.718 −0.007416 0.005317
  1. Data for Non-African runners are sorted in order of the number of finishers of each country
  2. Cage centered age, Cage 2 centered age squared