Skip to main content

Table 1 Variables and proxies of GDDM for Vietnam’s G&T industry in comparison with China’s

From: A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam’s garment and textile industry

Attributes Variables Proxies
Factor Conditions Domestic
 Basic factors Wage of worker in G&T industry (USD/h)
Number of workers and laborers in G&T industry (million people)
Labor productivity in G&T industry (shirts/worker/day)
 Advanced factors R&D expenditure (% of GDP)
 Advanced factors Manufacturing inward FDI flows (billion USD)
Manufacturing outward FDI flows (billion USD)
Demand Conditions Domestic
 Size Total population (million people)
GDP (billion USD)
Employment rate (%)
 Sophistication GDP per capita (USD)
Household rate of expenditure on G&T out of gross income (%)
Educational index
 Size Total export value of G&T industry (billion USD)
Average export growth rate of G&T industry (%)
Related and Supporting Industries Domestic
 Supporting Industries Cotton output (1000 t)
Yarn output (million tons)
 Supporting infrastructures Rail lines (total route—km)
Roads, paved (% of total roads)
ICT index
 Supporting industries Cotton exports (1000 t)
Yarn and fabric exports (billion USD)
 Supporting infrastructures Container port traffics (TEU: 20 foot equivalent unit)
Air transport (registered carrier departures worldwide)
Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Domestic
 Rivalry Intensity of local competition
 Business context World Bank DTF points
 Rivalry Market share of the country in G&T global market (%)
 Business context Average import tariff rate faced by G&T industry (%)
  1. Sources of data are provided in Additional file 1
  2. Source: Developed by the authors based on Rugman and Verbeke (1993), Sardy and Fetscherin (2009), Balcarová (2010), Williams and Morgan (2010), Son and Kenji (2013)