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Table 1 Etiologies of superior vena cava syndrome

From: Review of evolving etiologies, implications and treatment strategies for the superior vena cava syndrome

Etiology (Rice et al. 2006a; Chen et al. 1990; Mineo et al. 1999; Schraufnagel et al. 1981; Nicholson et al. 1997; Hohloch et al. 2014; Lonardi et al. 2002) Prevalence (%) (Rice et al. 2006a; Chen et al. 1990; Mineo et al. 1999; Schraufnagel et al. 1981; Nicholson et al. 1997; Hohloch et al. 2014; Lonardi et al. 2002)
Malignant
Non-small cell lung cancer 22–57
Small cell lung cancer 10–39
Lymphoma 1–27
“Other metastasis” 19
Other adenocarcinoma 3–15
Germ cell tumors 2–6
Thymoma 1–3
Sarcomas 2
Esophageal carcinoma 2
AML 1
Tuberculosis lymphangitis 2
Benign
Port-a-cath 16
Dialysis catheter 5
Fibrosing mediastinitis 2–9
Mesothelioma 1–7
Mustard operation 5
Primary SVC thrombosis 1–5
Retrosternal goiter 3
Tuberculosis lymphangitis 2
Behcet’s syndrome 2
Pacemaker wire 1–2
Hematoma after aortic dissection repair 1
Pseudotumor 1
Hickman catheter 1
Aneurysm 1
Radiation fibrosis 1
  1. Malignant and non-malignant causes of superior vena cava syndrome