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Table 3 Characteristics of protest cases where more than five deaths occurred as a result of the protest

From: Violent repression of environmental protests

Protest case Deaths International funding Country Issue Industry Geographic region Marginalized groups Start year Duration (years) Regime type
Belo Monte Dam 6 Alcoa, Vale (mining) Brazil Conservation Hydroelectric power Latin America Yes 1987 25 Partly free
PT Inti Indorayon Utama Indonesian Paper Mill 6 No Indonesia Pollution Paper mill Southeast Asia No 1993 6 Not free
Tia Maria Copper Mine 6 Southern Copper Peru Pollution Mining Latin America Yes 2010 3 Free
Andean Amayapampa Mine 11 Vista Gold Bolivia Pollution Mining Latin America Yes 1996 <1 Free
BHP Billiton Nickel Mine in Sibuyan Island 20 BHP Billiton Philippines Conservation Mining Southeast Asia Yes 2005 8 Partly free
Xstrata Mine 24 Xstrata Peru Conservation Mining Latin America Yes 1985 28 Free
Occidental Petroleum Company Drilling 30 Occidental Petroleum Colombia Conservation Petroleum Latin America Yes 1992 13 Partly free
Shell Oil Ogoni Protest 2000 Shell Oil Nigeria Pollution Petroleum Africa Yes 1992 21 Not free
Chixoy Dam in Rio Negro 5000 World Bank IADB Guatemala Conservation Hydroelectric power Latin America Yes 1982 31 Not free
  1. Nine of the ten cases had funding with international money and nine of the ten cases also involved marginalized groups