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Table 1 Variables

From: Violent repression of environmental protests

Violence Binary variable, coded yes if there was any kind of physical violence ranging from beatings to death
Empowerment CIRI Index’s New Empowerment Rights Indexa
GDP per capita World Bank Datab
Industry protested against Chemical industry, development (construction or land clearing), hydroelectric, logging, mining, nuclear power, nuclear weapons, water, petroleum, waste disposal, or wind energy
Geographic region Africa
Central Asia
Latin America
Middle East
North America
Southeast Asia
Southern Asia
Taken from United Nations (2012)
Project funded with international money Coded yes if there was any international funding (e.g., multinational corporate involvement or international aid)
Protest duration Number of years
Documented human health hazards of surrounding community Yes or no
Governance Free, partly free, or not free
Involvement of marginalized groups (defined as economically, socially, and politically disempowered people) Yes or no
  1. aCIRI data and documentation can be found here:
  2. bWorld Bank Data can be found at: