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Table 1 Variables

From: Violent repression of environmental protests


Binary variable, coded yes if there was any kind of physical violence ranging from beatings to death


CIRI Index’s New Empowerment Rights Indexa

GDP per capita

World Bank Datab

Industry protested against

Chemical industry, development (construction or land clearing), hydroelectric, logging, mining, nuclear power, nuclear weapons, water, petroleum, waste disposal, or wind energy

Geographic region


Central Asia


Latin America

Middle East

North America


Southeast Asia

Southern Asia

Taken from United Nations (2012)

Project funded with international money

Coded yes if there was any international funding (e.g., multinational corporate involvement or international aid)

Protest duration

Number of years

Documented human health hazards of surrounding community

Yes or no


Free, partly free, or not free

Involvement of marginalized groups (defined as economically, socially, and politically disempowered people)

Yes or no

  1. aCIRI data and documentation can be found here:
  2. bWorld Bank Data can be found at: