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Table 1 Case series

From: Dermatoglyphics in kidney diseases: a review

Author Case no. Gender Age (years) Ethnicity Country Disease Kidney anomalies Dermatoglyphic variables
Case Parents
Fraumeni et al. (1967) 1 F 11½ NR NR USA Wilms tumor (+congenital hemiarthropathy) Nephroblastoma
Histologically confirmed
Dermatoglyphic variables of palms and fingers were within normal limits and found no significant differences between the two sides
2 F 16 NR NR
4 F 2 NR NR
5 F NR NR
Juberg et al. (1975) 1 M 2 NR NR USA Wilms tumor Histologically confirmed nephroblastoma No dermatoglyphic abnormalities. Dermatoglyphics used to confirm monozygotic twining
Freire-Maia et al. (1982) 1 M 7 4/12
First child
M = 38
F = 25
Brazilians (Caucasian ancestry) Brazil Neurofaciodigitorenal (NFDR) syndrome Both kidneys with normal execratory function Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: UL in digit (1, 2, 4, 5) and RL in digit 3
  Left hand: DL in digit (1), UL in digit (2, 5), A in (3 and 4)
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Both hands: axial triradius (t), no thenar pattern, no hypotherner, no interdigital, distal triradii (c absent)
 Quantitative
  Right hand: atd angle = 44°, ulnarity index = 0.57
  Left hand: atd angle = 41°, ulnarity index = 0.48
  2 M 5
Second child
M = 40
F = 27
    Absence of L kidney, anteversion of R kidney Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: UL in digit (4, 5), RL in 1 and A in (2, 3)
  Left hand: UL in digit (3, 4, 5), RL in 2, W in 1
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: no interdigitalpattern, distaltriradii (c absent)
  Left hand: interdigital (Ld in ID 4)
  Both hands: axial triradius (t), no thenar pattern, no hypotherner pattern
 Quantitative
  Right hand: atd angle = 32°, ulnarity index = 0.67
  Left hand: atd angle = NR, ulnarity index = NR
Passarge (1965) 1 M 34 weeks M = 26 NR NR Potter’s syndrome Kidneys and ureters were absent and only a rudimentary bladder was found Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: single palmar crease
  Left hand: single palmar crease
  2 M 32 week
2 h old
M = 24 NR Absent kidney
Ureters and bladder were normal
NR
  3 F 36 week M = 26 NR The kidneys were large, and were cystic and dysplastic. The ureters and the bladder were norma Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: single transverse palmar
 Creases
  Left hand: single transverse palmar creases
Robinow et al. (1982) 4 F 9 M = 30 Puerto Rican USA Syndactyly type V Hypoplastic pelvic kidney on the left
Both collecting systems were dysmorphic
Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: A in digit 1–3, UL in digit 4–5
  Left hand: A in all digits
  Both hands: lacked distal
  Single transverse creases, distally displaced axial triradii and greatly reduced number of distal palmar triradii
Halal et al. (1984) 1 M 45 NR NR Canada Acro–renal–ocular syndrome Left crossed renal ectopia without fusion. Urinary tract anomaly Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: W in all digit
  Left hand: W in (1–4), UL in 5
 Quantitative
  Both hands: TRC = 210 (high)
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: Palmar triradius t1, MLF: 7–11.9.7.4-t′-0.0.0.Ld.Ld
Left hand: Palmar triradius t1, thenar/I1 pattern, MLF: 7–9.9.5″.3-t′-.W/0.0.Ld.Ld
  2 M 25 NR NR    Left paraurethral diverticulum Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: UL in (3–5), A in 2nd, W in 1st
  Left hand: UL in all digits
 Quantitative
  Both hands: TRC = 131
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: Palmar triradius t1, MLF: 9.7.5″.3-t-0.0.0.0.Ld
  Left hand: Palmar triradius t1, Ulnar pattern ID area IV, MLF: 9.7.5″.3-t-0.0.0.0.Ld
  3 F 24 NR NR    Scaral right renal ectopia Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: W in (1, 2, 4, 5), UL in 3rd
  Left hand: UL in (1–3), W in (4, 5)
 Quantitative
  Both hands: TRC = 199 (high)
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: Palmar triradius t1, MLF: 7.5″.5″.3-t′-0.V.0.0.Ld
  Left hand: Palmar triradius t1, MLF: 5″-9.9.5″.3-t′-0.0.0.L.d.Ld
  Both hands: thenar exist of A line
  4 F 22 NR NR    Malrotated right kidney Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: UL in 2–5), absent D1
  Left hand: W in (1, 2), UL in (3–5)
 Quantitative
  Both hands: TRC = 172
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: Palmar triradius t1, absence of axial triradius
  MLF: 9.X.5″.4-abs-0.0.0.0.0
  Left hand: Palmar triradius t1
  MLF: 9–9.7.5″, I-t′-0.0.0.0.Ld.Ld
  Both hands: thenar exist of A line
  5 F 21 NR NR    Left kidney (10 cm)is slightly smaller than right kidney (12.5) and malrotated Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: UL in (1–3), W in (4, 5)
  Left hand: LH: W in (2, 4, 5), UL in 4, A in 1
 Quantitative
  Both hands: TRC = 166
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: Palmar triradius t1
MLI: 9.7.5″.3-t′-0.0.0. Ld.0
  Left hand: Palmar triradius t1
  MLI: 7.9.5″.3-t-0.0.0.Ld.Ld
  6 F 17 NR NR    Left crossed renal ectopia without fusion urinary tract anomaly, VUR in the ectopic kidney Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: UL in (2–5), W in 1
  Left hand: UL in all digit
 Quantitative
  Both hands: TRC = 144
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: Palmar triradius t1
  MLF: 7.5″.5′. I-t′-V.0.0.0.Ld
  Left hand: Palmar triradius t1
  Central pocket whorl pattern in ID area IV
  MLF: 7.5″.5″. 3-t′-0.0.0.0.Wcpd
  Both hands: thenar exist of A line
  7 F 2 month NR NR    VUR grade 11A Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: UL in (3, 5), W in (1, 4), A in 2
  RL pattern in extra thumb
  Left hand: UL in (3, 4), W in (1, 5), RL in 2
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: Palmar triradius t1
  MLF: 7-9.abs.5″. I-t′-Lr.0.0.0.Ld
  Left hand: Palmar triradius t′
  MLF: 7-9.abs.5″. I-t′-Lr.0.0.0.Ld
  Both hands: Thenar exist of A line, absent C
Philip et al. (1992) 1 M 12 M = 22
F = 32
French Japan Kabuki make-up (Niikawa–Kuroki) syndrome Horseshoe kidney Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Both hands: fingertip ulnar loop10/10
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: missing triradius c, hypothenar loop
  Left hand: missing triradius c, hypothenar loop
  2 M M = 23
F = 29
German    Abnormality + Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Both hands: fingertip ulnar loop 9/10
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: missing triradius d, hypothenar loop
  Left hand: missing triradius d, hypothenar loop
  3 M M = 32
F = 38
French    Mild urinary reflux Digital dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Both hands: fingertip ulnar loop9/10
Palmar dermatoglyphics
 Qualitative
  Right hand: hypothenar loop, interdigital triradius bc or cd
  Left hand: hypothenar loop, missing triradius c
  1. NR not reported, A arch, W whorl, UL ulnar loop, RL radial loop, DL double loop, TRC total finger ridge count, MLF main line formula, M male, F Female, VUR vesicoureteral reflux, ID interdigital