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Fig. 11 | SpringerPlus

Fig. 11

From: A framework for the first-person internal sensation of visual perception in mammals and a comparable circuitry for olfactory perception in Drosophila

Fig. 11

Schematic diagram showing the mechanism of olfactory percept formation within a glomerulus. a Spread of activity through the neuronal processes in the absence of odorants. The baseline firing of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), lead to spread of activity to the synapses between the ORNs and the projection neurons (PNs). Spread of activity through the excitatory local neurons (ELNs) from one glomerulus to other glomeruli results in oscillating activity across different glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Two postsynapses each from the corresponding three different sister PNs whose dendrites are located within a single glomerulus are shown. Based on the present work existing inter-postsynaptic LINKs within each of the different glomeruli can contribute to horizontal component that can trigger oscillations of potentials among the glomeruli. The integral of all the non-specific semblances induced at the inter-postsynaptic LINKs is called C-semblance that can contribute to the fly attention. A and C are the presynaptic terminals of the ORNs. B and D are the postsynaptic terminals of two different PNs within a glomerulus. b Induction of perceptons in the presence of an odorant. Two synapses between two ORNs and two sister PNs within the glomerulus along with their inter-postsynaptic LINK BD is shown. In the context of background C-semblance, the stimulus-semblion U-loops form at the inter-postsynaptic LINK BD to induce percepton (as explained in Fig. 4). Note that the semblions are shown to overlap closer to the olfactory receptors than the actual source of the odorant. This enables localization of the odor close to the olfactory receptors, in contrast to the visual perception. The entanglement of perceptons provides the conformation for the percept of a specific smell. Percept of a specific attractive smell formed within a glomerulus can trigger motor actions to the fly along the concentration gradient as a response to increasing percepts, the fly can reach towards the source of food. Note that the oscillating potential wave form that extended beyond the single glomerulus in the absence of odorants got limited to that glomerulus alone due to the spread of inhibitory activity to the other glomeruli through the inhibitory local neurons (ILNs) during perception

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