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Table 4 Associations between the use of information channels and the purchase of OTCs

From: Key information providers, channels, and characteristics of Japanese consumers’ informed choices of over-the-counter medications

Information channel (used: yes/no) Multivariate logistic regression analysisa
ORb (95 % CI) P-valuec
Consultation at pharmacies
 Yes 4.55 (2.92, 7.11) <0.001
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Family or friends
 Yes 0.55 (0.36, 0.82) 0.004
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Internet
 Yes 1.29 (0.86, 1.93) 0.213
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Consultation at medical institutions
 Yes 0.94 (0.63, 1.39) 0.750
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
TV or radio
 Yes 1.05 (0.70, 1.59) 0.809
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Newspapers or advertising inserts
 Yes 0.74 (0.47, 1.16) 0.189
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Packages or package leaflets
 Yes 1.02 (0.63, 1.64) 0.943
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Books or magazines
 Yes 1.48 (0.72, 3.04) 0.293
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Customer services of OTC manufacturers
 Yes 0.93 (0.48, 1.80) 0.838
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Consultation services of public organizations
 Yes 1.14 (0.53, 2.46) 0.734
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
  1. The outcome and predictor variables were the purchase of OTCs (Yes/No) and the use of each information channel (Yes/No), respectively
  2. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, OTC over-the-counter medication
  3. an = 1743
  4. bVariables were mutually adjusted
  5. cStatistically significant (P < 0.05)