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Table 2 Associations between the use of information providers and the purchase of OTCs

From: Key information providers, channels, and characteristics of Japanese consumers’ informed choices of over-the-counter medications

Information provider (used: yes/no) Multivariate logistic regression analysisa
ORb (95 % CI) P-valuec
Pharmacists
 Yes 3.74 (2.46, 5.68) <0.001
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
OTC manufacturers
 Yes 1.13 (0.76, 1.67) 0.549
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Family or friends using OTCs
 Yes 0.60 (0.40, 0.90) 0.014
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Medical doctors
 Yes 0.77 (0.51, 1.17) 0.220
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Ordinary users of OTCs
 Yes 1.42 (0.87, 2.32) 0.157
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Public organizations
 Yes 1.07 (0.62, 1.83) 0.806
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Nurses
 Yes 1.09 (0.60, 1.98) 0.769
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Salespersons
 Yes 0.87 (0.45, 1.68) 0.682
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Mass communications
 Yes 1.80 (0.88, 3.69) 0.107
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Registered distributors
 Yes 1.59 (0.66, 3.82) 0.298
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
Public health nurses
 Yes 0.51 (0.25, 1.02) 0.058
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
OTC experts
 Yes 1.14 (0.42, 3.08) 0.803
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
People of learning and experience
 Yes 0.66 (0.26, 1.69) 0.383
 No 1.00 [Reference]  
  1. The outcome and predictor variables were the purchase of OTCs (Yes/No) and the use of each information provider (Yes/No), respectively
  2. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, OTC over-the-counter medication
  3. an = 1743
  4. bVariables were mutually adjusted
  5. cStatistically significant (P < 0.05)