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Table 1 Characteristics of the assessment tools of tactical knowledge in invasion sports

From: Review of the tactical evaluation tools for youth players, assessing the tactics in team sports: football

Name of the tool and acronym Recom-mended age Principles of performance being evaluated Sports group being evaluated
Game performance assessment instrument (GPAI) 6–14 years of age Score a goal (finishing): keep possession of the ball, attack the opponent’s goal, create space in attack and use the space in attack. Prevent your opponent from scoring: defend the space, defend the goal line and get the ball back
Restart the game; throw the ball, corner kicks and free kicks
Invasion sports
Basketball, handball, soccer, etc
Performance assessment in team sports (TSAP) +12–13 years of age Evaluates among other factors: received balls (RB), conquered balls (CB), offensive balls (OB), successful shots (SS), volume of play (PB) or lost balls (LB) Soccer, basketball, handball, or volleyball
Procedural tactical knowledge test (KORA) 6–12 years of age General principles: try to create numerical superiority, to avoid numerical equality and not to allow numerical inferiority Invasion sports
Game performance evaluation tool (GPET) 6–14 years of age Operational principles of play. Offensive: keep possession of the ball, advance towards the opponent’s field and score in the opponent’s goal. Defensive: regain possession of the ball. Prevent the opponent’s advance and protect your own goal and the opponent’s finishing Invasion sports
Basketball, handball or soccer
System of tactical assessment in soccer (FUT–SAT) More than 11–12 years of age Fundamental principles of play. Offensive: penetration, offensive coverage, width and length, depth mobility and offensive unity. Defensive: delay, defensive coverage, balance, concentration and defensive unity Soccer and futsal
Game performance analysis More than 16 years of age Specific principles of each team (these principles are not defined since they are different for each team) Basketball, handball, soccer, rugby or volleyball