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Table 4 Search themes case studies

From: The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review

Sport Sport technology Reference
Aeromodelling Whether such technology is a competitive sport Norris (2011)
Amateur boxing Increase in head injuries caused by boxers feeling they have an increased invulnerability Dyer et al. (2010)
America’s Cup yachting Hull design Nafziger (2004)
American football The replacement of leather headgear by plastic helmets Miah (2005); Gelberg (1995)
Athletics with a disability (100–400 m running) Oscar Pistorius prosthetic legs Baker (2015); Wolbring and Tynedal (2013); Marcellini et al. (2012); Wolbring (2012); Burkett et al. (2011); Scholz et al. (2011); Dyer et al. (2011); Howe (2011); van Hilvoorde and Landeweerd (2008); Dyer et al. (2010); Burkett (2010); Murray (2010); Jones and Wilson (2009); Moses (2009); Lea (2009); Weyand et al. (2009); Zettler (2009); Grabowski et al. (2009); Swartz and Watermeyer (2008); Mokha and Conrey (2007); Hutzler (2008); Edwards (2008); Wolbring (2008)
Athletics with a disability (Long Jump) Markus Rehm prosthetic leg Baker (2015)
Cricket Line call technology Collins and Evans (2011); Collins (2010); Collins and Evans (2008); Singh (2012)
Cycling Obree ‘tuck position’ (reskilling based technology) Trabal (2008)
Cycling Use of the rear gear derailleur in the Tour de France Trabal (2008)
Cycling Obree ‘tuck’ or ‘superman position’ (reskilling based technology) Miah (2006); Trabal (2008)
Distance running Chip timing Sailors (2009)
Fishing Introduction of the spinning reel Miah (2006); Hummel and Foster (1986)
Football Use of goal-line technology/refereeing Svantesson (2014); Singh (2012); Nlandu (2012); Collins (2010)
Golf Casey Martin’s use of a golf cart Baker (2015); Burkett et al. (2011); Dyer et al. (2010); Hutzler (2008); Charlish and Riley (2008); Francis (2005)
Golf ‘U’ grooves in golf club heads Carr (2008); Miah (2006); Gardner (1989)
Golf Croquet style putter Carr (2008)
Golf ‘Polara’ golf ball Dyer et al. (2011)
Golf Introduction of rubber cored golf ball Vamplew (2007)
Golf Golf ball and arguments between two governing bodies over use of steel shafts in the 1950’s Vamplew (2007)
Ice hockey Argued mandatory use of goalie face masks Bachynski (2012)
Ice skating Use of ‘Klapskates’ van Hilvoorde et al. (2007)
Marathon running Use of wheelchairs at Boston Marathon in 1975 Hutzler (2008)
Pole vault Use of glass fibre for pole Dyer et al. (2010); VerSteeg (2005)
Pole vault Digging of hole to plant pole into. VerSteeg (2005)
Rowing Movable handles (roller skiff) Trabal (2008)
Swimming Full body swimsuits being hydrodynamically superior Foster et al. (2012); Stefani (2012); Craik (2011); Partridge (2011); James (2010); Burkett (2010); Zettler (2009); Lea (2009); Mountjoy et al. (2009); Magdalinski (2000)
Tennis Use of ‘Hawk-eye’ line judge technology Collins and Evans (2008, 2011); Collins (2010)
Tennis ‘Spaghetti strung’ rackets Dyer et al. (2011); Dyer et al. (2010); Sheridan (2006); Savulescu (2006)
Tennis Ball size and material composition Sheridan (2006); Miah (2000)
Various Use of hypoxic chambers James (2010); Loland and Caplan (2008); Spriggs (2005); Miah (2006); Miah (2005)
Wrestling Use of video-taped evidence Nafziger (2004)