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Table 1 Summary of sports technology impact

From: The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review

Criterion References
Harm or health (to the athlete or others) Hemphill (2009); Kayser et al. (2007); Miah (2006); Lavin (2003); Loland (2002); Stoll et al. (2002); Bjerklie (1993); Brown (1980)
Un-naturalness Hemphill (2009; Miah (2006); Loland (2002); Stoll et al. (2002)
Unfair advantage or consideration of fairness Murray (2010); Hemphill (2009); Carr (2008); Miah (2006); Lavin (2003); Stoll et al. (2002); Loland (2002); Gardner (1989); Brown (1980)
Coercion Lavin (2003); Gardner (1989)
Safety, and spectator appeal Gelberg (1998)
Integrity of the game, harm to or advantage over the sport itself, or the ‘spirit of the sport’ James (2010); Miah (2000); Gardner (1989)
Deskilling and reskilling Miah (2006); Sheridan (2006); Miah (2000); Gardner (1989)
Dehumanisation Miah (2000)
Cost (or excess cost) James (2010); Froes (1997)
The internal goods of a sport Schneider and Butcher (1993)
Equal opportunity or access Lenk (2007); Gelberg (1998)