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Fig. 3 | SpringerPlus

Fig. 3

From: A pressure-reversible cellular mechanism of general anesthetics capable of altering a possible mechanism for consciousness

Fig. 3

Sources of potentials that contribute to the horizontal and vertical components of the oscillating potentials. Upper left side A cortical pyramidal neuron with different locations of spike generation. The source of surface-recorded electro-encephalogram (EEG) waveforms is likely to have significant contributions from the NMDA spikes from the apical tufts since their magnitude is higher than that of the somatic spikes (neuronal firing) and they occur close to the pial surface. Upper right side Five islets of inter-LINKed postsynaptic terminals (IILPS) are shown that represent the abundance of dendritic spines in this area that permits several postsynapses to get inter-LINKed both by innate and acquired mechanisms. The islets are expected to be connected with each other through recurrent collaterals, layer 1 cortical neurons and cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. This pattern of arrangement will provide a mechanism for long-range synchronization that is being recorded as EEG waveforms. Bottom The role of both thalamus and brain stem inputs in maintaining the frequency of oscillations in the cortex. Various nuclei in the brain stem that provide inputs to both thalamus and cortex are shown (neurotransmitters are given in brackets). Cortico-thalamo-cortical pathway maintains a significant role in controlling the oscillating potentials in the cortex. Pontine reticular activating system sends glutamatergic inputs to the thalamus potentially regulating the oscillating potentials in the cortex. RC recurrent collateral, C-T cortico-thalamic pathway, T-C thalamo-cortical pathway, L1 layer 1 cortical neuron, IILPS islet of inter-LINKed postsynapses, Glu glutamate, ACh acetyl choline, 5HT 5-hydroxy tryptamine (serotonin), NE nor-epinephrine

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