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Table 2 Results of mixed effects regression analyses for gender difference in race time for the annual fastest and the annual three fastest finishers

From: Participation and performance trends in elderly marathoners in four of the world’s largest marathons during 2004–2011

Parameter Estimate SE df t p value
Annual fastest finishers
Constant term 2749.73 3812.86 19.000 0.721 0.480
Calendar year −1.36 1.89 19.000 −0.716 0.483
Cage gender difference 4.07 6.60 19.000 0.617 0.545
Cage2 gender difference 0.17 0.87 19.000 0.195 0.848
(Gender = f) × (age group = 85–89) −42.64 82.73 19.000 −0.515 0.612
(Gender = f) × (age group = 80–84) −14.66 27.14 19.000 −0.540 0.595
Annual three fastest finishers
Constant term 2202.04 1829.08 35.12 1.20 0.237
Calendar year −1.08 0.91 35.05 −1.18 0.243
Cage gender difference −2.01 3.05 44.78 −0.65 0.514
Cage2 gender difference 0.57 0.51 44.92 1.11 0.272
(Gender = f) × (age group = 75–79) −7.27 12.85 44.79 −0.56 0.574
  1. f female, cage centered age, SE standard error