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Table 1 Results of mixed effects regression analyses for race time for all, the annual fastest and the annual three fastest finishers

From: Participation and performance trends in elderly marathoners in four of the world’s largest marathons during 2004–2011

Parameter Estimate SE df t p value
All finishers
Constant term −17,025.92 1334.69 921.87 −12.75 <0.0001
(Gender = f) 23.34 8.10 775.06 2.87 0.004
Calendar year 8.65 0.66 922.02 13.01 <0.0001
Cage 5.21 1.06 808.90 4.91 <0.0001
Cage2 −0.12 0.09 595.08 −1.32 0.187
(Gender = f) × cage −7.43 3.83 787.02 −1.93 0.053
(Gender = f) × cage2 1.22 0.53 773.14 2.31 0.021
Annual fastest
Constant term −10,780.25 5967.83 41.83 −1.80 0.078
(Gender = f) 29.01 22.49 42.56 1.28 0.204
Calendar year 5.48 2.97 41.81 1.84 0.072
Cage 9.57 11.76 31.11 0.81 0.422
Cage2 −1.22 0.68 22.00 −1.78 0.088
(Gender = f) × cage 0.53 15.83 30.26 0.03 0.973
(Gender = f) × cage2 0.83 1.65 39.67 0.50 0.617
(Gender = f) × (age group = 85–89) 97.22 97.18 43.08 1.00 0.323
(Gender = f) × (age group = 80–84) 27.35 39.34 43.96 0.69 0.491
(Gender = m) × (age group = 95–99) 481.64 182.05 15.84 2.64 0.018
(Gender = m) × (age group = 90–94) 234.69 102.33 19.55 2.29 0.033
(Gender = m) × (age group = 85–89) 209.87 86.63 25.08 2.42 0.023
(Gender = m) × (age group = 80–84) 15.55 45.97 17.64 0.33 0.739
Annual three fastest
Constant term −8462.10 3487.14 98.90 −2.42 0.017
(Gender = f) −107.05 47.30 60.97 −2.26 0.027
Calendar year 4.42 1.73 98.83 2.55 0.012
Cage 11.21 5.17 53.16 2.16 0.035
Cage2 −1.69 0.41 36.57 −4.05 <0.0001
(Gender = f) × cage 0.27 7.20 47.77 0.03 0.969
(Gender = f) × cage2 1.55 0.87 58.95 1.76 0.082
(Gender = f) × (age group = 75–79) −11.01 17.29 36.53 −0.637 0.528
(Gender = m) × (age group = 75–79) −181.52 42.53 55.53 −4.26 <0.0001
(Gender = m) × (age group = 80–84) −149.15 31.73 69.43 −4.70 <0.0001
  1. f female, m male, cage centered age, SE standard error