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Table 1 Reported syntheses of anthocyanidins

From: Synthetic anthocyanidins and their antioxidant properties

Conditions Yield (%) References
Salicylaldehyde, acetophenone, HBF4, HOAc, acetic anhydride, 60 °C, 12 h 40–58, 23–78 Katritzky et al. (1998), Gomes et al. (2009)
Salicylaldehyde, acetophenone, BF3 etherate, neat 81 Kuhnert et al. (2001)
Salicylaldehyde, acetophenone, H2SO4, HOAc, overnight 40–88 Calogero et al. (2013)
Salicylaldehyde, acetophenone, EtOAc, HCl gas, 0 °C, 3 days 56–75, 55–84 Mora-Soumille et al. (2013), Mas (2003)
Salicylaldehyde, acetophenone, HPF6, HOAc, 2 days 89 Kueny-Stotz et al. (2008)
Salicylaldehyde, acetophenone, HCl gas, formic acid, 5 h 56 Moncada et al. (2004), Michaelidis and Wizinger (1951)
Salicylaldehyde, benzaldehyde, ethyl chloroformate, HClO4, 1–12 h 49–95 Sato et al. (1999)
Salicylideneacetophenone, HBF4OEt2 or HOTf in Et2O 62–67 Fichtner et al. (2001)
Phenol, arylethynylketone, HPF6, HOAc, r.t. 82–99 Kueny-Stotz et al. (2007)