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Table 3 Clinicodemographic variables according to presence of lateral epicondylitis

From: Chronic hyperglycemia increases the risk of lateral epicondylitis: the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS)

  Total (n = 1,777) Subjects with lateral epicondylitis (n = 44) Subjects without lateral epicondylitis (n = 1,733) P value
Age (years)
 40–59 256 (14.4) 9 (20.5) 247 (14.3) 0.360
 60–69 675 (38.0) 13 (29.5) 662 (38.2)
 ≥70 846 (47.6) 20 (50.0) 824 (47.5)
Sex
 Male 774 (43.6) 20 (45.5) 754 (43.5) 0.797
 Female 1,003 (56.4) 24 (54.5) 879 (56.5)
Occupational categories
 No occupation 1,029 (57.9) 23 (52.3) 1,006 (58.1) 0.933
 Nonmanual 101 (5.7) 3 (6.8) 98 (5.6)
 Service 187 (10.5) 6 (13.6) 181 (10.4)
 Manual 333 (18.7) 9 (20.5) 324 (18.7)
 Other 127 (7.1) 3 (6.8) 124 (7.2)
Smoking status
 Never 1,115 (62.7) 26 (59.1) 1,089 (62.8) 0.848
 Past 460 (25.9) 13 (29.5) 447 (25.8)
 Current 202 (11.4) 5 (11.4) 197 (11.4)
Alcohol consumption
 Never 548 (30.8) 16 (36.4) 532 (30.7) 0.542
 Every day 451 (25.4) 13 (29.5) 438 (25.3)
 Sometimes 332 (18.7) 5 (11.4) 327 (18.9)
 Rarely 446 (25.1) 10 (22.7) 436 (25.4)
Obesity
 Normal (BMI <25) 1,124 (63.3) 24 (54.5) 1,100 (63.5) 0.225
 Overweight (BMI ≥25) 653 (36.7) 20 (45.5) 633 (36.5)
Abdominal circumference (cm)
 Normal 1,141 (64.2) 27 (61.4) 1,114 (64.3) 0.690
 Abnormal 636 (35.8) 17 (38.6) 619 (35.7)
Mets
 No 1,458 (82.0) 34 (77.3) 1,424 (82.2) 0.403
 Yes 319 (18.0) 10 (22.7) 309 (17.8)
Hypertension
 Normal 485 (27.3) 12 (27.3) 473 (27.3) 0.923
 Borderline 529 (29.8) 12 (27.3) 517 (29.8)
 Definite 763 (42.9) 20 (45.4) 743 (42.9)
Hyperlipidemia
 Normal 1,188 (66.9) 30 (68.2) 1,158 (66.8) 0.850
 Definite 589 (33.1) 14 (31.8) 575 (33.2)
Chronic hyperglycemia
 Favorable control (HbA1C <5.5) 1,181 (66.5) 23 (52.3) 1,158 (66.8) 0.025
 Suspected (5.5 ≤ HbA1C < 6.4) 498 (28.0) 15 (34.1) 483 (27.9)
 Definite (HbA1C ≥6.5) 98 (5.5) 6 (13.6) 92 (5.3)
Subjective outcome, mean (SD)
The QuickDASH 8.7 (11.3) 15.0 (12.7) 8.5 (11.1) <0.001
 SF-12
  PCS 32.2 (12.2) 29.9 (12.1) 32.3 (12.2) 0.209
  MCS 45.8 (9.1) 43.8 (9.5) 45.8 (9.1) 0.144
  1. BMI body mass index, Mets metabolic syndrome, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, DASH disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand, SF-12 short form 12, PCS physical component summary, MCS mental component summary, SD standard deviation.