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Table 4 Genetic effects of the parents per se estimated from the general model for FD, FA, RA, and SD root traits

From: Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids

Inbred Pool FD FA RA SD
Positive additive effects for root traits
 LH123HT N 0.016 19,803*** 2.6 17.4
 PHZ51 N 0.003 13,671** 13.6*** 38.6***
 MO17 N 0.022* 7,505 2.7 1.0
 PHG39 S 0.033** 11,046* 0.1 −7.9
 PHG84 N 0.029** 12,864* −2.5 4.8
Positive FD and SD, negative RA
 B73 S 0.054*** 1,877 −19.2*** 24.6*
Negative FD and FA, positive RA
 LH1 S −0.051*** −13,122* 13.0*** −5.5
 LH82 N −0.043*** −9,488 9.1** −18.6
Negative additive effects for root traits
 PHG47 N −0.029** −11,585* −5.1 −4.4
 PHJ40 S −0.023* −28,702*** −9.1** −40.5***
 PH207 N 0.006 −5,983 −9.1** −8.8
Neutral root trait effects
 PHG35 N 0.000 2,115 3.9 −2.5
 SEa   0.009 4,240 2.7 9.3
  1. Pool heterotic pool, S stiff stalk synthetic, N non-stiff stalk, FD, fractal dimension, FA fractal abundance, RA root angle and SD stalk diameter.
  2. aStandard error for genetic effects. False discovery rate significances are shown as *** q ≤ 0.001; ** q ≤ 0.01; * q ≤ 0.05;  q ≤ 0.1.