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Table 3 Model parameter F-values, significance level, and estimates of environmental differences, heterosis, and differences between F1 and check hybrids for FD, FA, RA, and SD

From: Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids

   F value
Effect DF FD FA RA SD
ENV 1 512.27*** 283.89*** 0.00 89.99***
Reps (ENV) 4 0.38 2.19 2.10 1.28
Effect of lines per se 11 12.80*** 10.14*** 11.54*** 4.94***
GCA 11 0.93 1.23 1.56 1.57
SCA 54 1.76** 1.98*** 2.39*** 0.97
Checks 7 3.89** 3.87** 6.70*** 1.71
Line × ENV 11 4.72*** 2.95** 3.30** 2.44*
Heterosis × ENV 1 0.11 23.20*** 10.54** 0.30
F1 vs. Checks × ENV 1 0.04 2.13 2.78 1.33
Checks × ENV 4 4.14* 3.96* 2.34 0.71
Residual covariance 395 4.88 × 10−4 1.177 × 108 49.00 568.99
Estimate   Estimate [standard error]
2007 vs. 2010 1 −0.074*** 10.2116*** 0.1 −32.6***
   [0.003] [7.3873] [1.0] [3.6]
Mean heterosis, (F1s vs. Inbreds) 1 0.038*** 10.0434*** 14.5*** 2.3
  [0.003] [7.2410] [0.9] [3.1]
F1s vs. Checks 1 −0.004 8.5524* 5.2*** −5.8
  [0.004] [7.5104] [1.2] [4.0]
  1. ENV environment, Reps replications, FD fractal dimension, FA fractal abundance, RA root angle, SD stalk diameter, GCA general combining ability and SCA specific combining ability.
  2. ***,**,* Indicate significance of effects at probability levels q ≤ 0.001, q ≤ 0.01, and q ≤ 0.05, respectively.