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Table 4 Parameter estimates for the full model and marginal effects from the multinomial logistic regression model of the perceived degree of climate change and its impact on agriculture over the last 20 years by farm households in the Borana lowlands

From: Perception of climate change and its impact by smallholders in pastoral/agropastoral systems of Borana, South Ethiopia

Explanatory variable Overall significance of the variable (P-value) Groups Noticeable and having some effects on agriculture (N = 109) Noticeable and substantially affecting agriculture (N = 243) Noticeable and completely changing the way we farm (N = 101)
  Coefficient (Odds ratio) P-value Coefficient (Odds ratio) P-value Coefficient (Odds ratio) P-value
Age 0.000** Age 1 vs 3 −2.130(0.035) 0.000** −0.964(0.167) 0.069ns −1.563(0.061) 0.006**
   Age 2 vs 3 0.900(0.717) 0.020* 0.137(0.502) 0.741ns 0.326(0.402) 0.391**
Education 0.008** Cat 1 vs 3 0.399(0.900) 0.515ns 0.597(2.299) 0.294ns 1.002(3.029) 0.091ns
   Cat 2 vs 3 −0.905(0.244) 0.146ns −0.361(0.882) 0.561ns −0.875(0.454) 0.173ns
Household size 0.143ns 0.015(1.015) 0.923ns 0.065(1.067) 0.643ns 0.103(1.108) 0.472ns
Production system 0.566ns −0.047(0.954) 0.936ns −0.289(0.749) 0.595ns 0.029(1.029) 0.963ns
Livestock holding 0.004** 0.436(1.547) 0.001** 0.441(1.554) 0.001** 0.399(1.492) 0.001**
Farm income 0.086ns −0.0004(1.000) 0.767ns −0.0002(1.000) 0.869ns −0.0023(0.998) 0.172ns
Non-farm income 0.159ns 0.0009(1.001) 0.474ns 0.0016(1.002) 0.160ns 0.0015(1.001) 0.185ns
Access to climate information 0.001** 1.750(5.751) 0.007** 1.990(7.313) 0.001** 1.351(3.861) 0.038*
Access to extension service 0.001** 1.556(4.742) 0.033* 1.786(5.963) 0.002** 0.824(2.278) 0.247ns
Observations used 465
  1. reference level = no perception of climate change; pseudo-R2 = 0.223; ** = highly significant; * = significant; ns = non-significant