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Table 2 Pastoralist/agropastoralists perceptions of existence and direction of changes in temperature and rainfall over the past 20 years (1992–2012) in the Borana lowlands, Ethiopia

From: Perception of climate change and its impact by smallholders in pastoral/agropastoral systems of Borana, South Ethiopia

Percentage of responses in each category of change (N = 475)
Which direction do you think temperature and rainfall are changing?
Climatic variable Climatic element Increasing Decreasing More extremes Not sure χ 2 test P value
Temperature (all seasons) Overall temp 68 1 29 2 0.0001**
Daily temp 95 3 - 2 0.0001**
Nightly temp 57 33 - 10 0.0001**
Rainfall (rainy seasons) Amount 3 95 - 2 0.0001**
Intensity 18 67 - 15 0.0001**
How do you see the coming of rains during rainy seasons?
Rainfall (rainy seasons) Timing Early onset Late onset More extremes Not sure  
1 96 - 3 0.0001**
How do you see the length of rainy periods?
Rainfall (rainy seasons) Duration Longer Shorter More extremes Not sure  
0 97 - 3 0.0001**
Which season do you think temperature or rainfall is changing most?
Changes by season   Long rains Short dry Short rains Long dry  
Temperature 1 3 94 2 0.0001**
Rainfall 52 0 42 6 0.0001**
  1. Values are presented as a percentage of the group followed by confidence limits in brackets (overall N = 475)
  2. Figures in brackets show lower and upper confidence limits at 95 % confidence level