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Table 1 Distribution of PhD program graduates in groups of job positions, %

From: Employment of PhD program graduates in Russia: a study of the University of Nizhni Novgorod graduates’ careers

Position Graduates with a PhD degree Graduates without a degree
  Natural sciences and IT Social sciences and humanities Natural sciences and IT Social sciences and humanities
Researchers 33 0 26 0
Faculty members of HEIs 28 35 7 7
Engineers and technologists 18 0 30 0
Professional staff members of companies and organizations 16 30 21 35
Management staff of companies and organizations 5 19 13 37
Other job categories that do not require high-level qualifications 0 16 3 21