EαGFP:YAe system can be used to assess antigen (Ag) uptake, processing, and presentation by DCs in the presence of alum in vitro and in vivo. (A): When EαGFP is taken up by DCs, it is processed and presented in the context of Eα(52–68):MHCII complexes. (B): The Eα(52–68):MHCII complexes can be bound by YAe antibody (Ab). (C): T cell receptor (TCR) of TEa mice sees the same complexes what YAe sees. Alum enhances Ag uptake, reduces degradation, and eventually increases presentation by DCs in vitro. This adjuvant also enhances the expression of CD86, CD80, and CD40 molecules by DCs in vitro. Arrow shows Ag processing path.